This paper shows a specific approach based on infrared (IR) thermography to face the challenging aspects of thermal measurement, mapping, and failure analysis on AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and MMICs. In the first part of this paper, IR thermography is used for the temperature measurement. Results are compared with 3D thermal simulations (ANSYS) to validate the thermal model of an 8x125pm AIGaN/GaN HEMT on SiC substrate. Measurements at different baseplate temperature are also performed to highlight the non-linearity of the thermal properties of materials. Then, correlations between the junction temperature and the life time are also discussed. In the second part, IR thermography is used for hot spot detection. The interest of the system for defect localization on AIGaN/GaN HEMT technology is presented through two case studies: a high temperature operating life test and a temperature humidity bias test.