This paper discusses the application of two different techniques for failure analysis of Cu through-silicon vias (TSVs), used in 3D stacked-IC technology. The first technique is GHz Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (GHz- SAM), which not only allows detection of defects like voids, cracks and delamination, but also the visualization of Rayleigh waves. GHz-SAM can provide information on voids, delamination and possibly stress near the TSVs. The second is a reflection-based photoelastic technique (SIREX), which is shown to be very sensitive to stress anisotropy in the Si near TSVs and as such also to any defect affecting this stress, such as delamination and large voids.

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