In this work, we present TEM failure analysis of two typical failure cases related to metal voiding in Cu BEOL processes. To understand the root cause behind the Cu void formation, we performed detailed TEM failure analysis for the phase and microstructure characterization by various TEM techniques such as EDX, EELS mapping and electron diffraction analysis. In the failure case study I, the Cu void formation was found to be due to the oxidation of the Cu seed layer which led to the incomplete Cu plating and thus voiding at the via bottom. While in failure case study II, the voiding at Cu metal surface was related to Cu CMP process drift and surface oxidation of Cu metal at alkaline condition during the final CMP process.

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