Abstract

Laser Voltage Imaging (LVI) has become a well-established method for isolating scan-shift (i.e., scan chain integrity) tests failures [1, 2]. When LVI is coupled with time-domain information acquired using Continuous-Wave Laser Voltage Probing (CW-LVP) [3], the Physical Failure Analysis (PFA) success rate exceeds 90% for all types of failing conditions, from hard stuck-at fails to soft transition fails. This combination of Electrical Failure Analysis (EFA) techniques is effective because of its ability to pre-isolate the defect to a small enough area for successful PFA. While high PFA success rates are proven, there remains the issue of throughput: CW-LVP can be time consuming, and techniques that minimize the need for it are important. This paper introduces a novel LVI methodology that incorporates phase information [4] and reduces the need for CW-LVP for certain types of failures. Case studies will be presented.

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