Fault localization on functional macros during advanced technology development requires a complex combination of tester based diagnostics and image based techniques including laser voltage imaging (LVI), laser voltage probing (LVP), critical parameter analysis (CPA) with laser stimulation and photon emission microscopy (PEM). These techniques are exemplified in the following three case studies. The first case involves a voltage sensitive SRAM block fail which was localized to a resistive via through the use of CPA, LVI and LVP. The second case demonstrates how a hard fail (a net-to-net metal short) in a scan chain was localized through use of tester based diagnostics, LVI, LVP and PEM. Finally, the last case shows how a condition sensitive failing latch chain was localized through CPA, LVI, LVP and PEM. Subsequent atomic force probing (AFP) identified source-drain leakage in one of the localized devices, and TEM analysis revealed a dislocation in the failing FET. Each of these cases demonstrates the value in utilizing tester based diagnostics along with laser based imaging and photon emission microscopy to localize failures.

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