The Laser Voltage Imaging (LVI) technique, introduced in 2007 [1][2], has been demonstrated as a successful defect localization technique to address problems on advanced technologies. In this paper, several 28nm case studies are described on which the LVI technique and its derivatives provide a real added value to the defect localization part of the Failure Analysis flow. We will show that LVI images can be used as a great reference to improve the CAD alignment overlay accuracy which is critical for advanced technology debug. Then, we will introduce several case studies on 28nm technology on which Thermal Frequency Imaging (TFI) and Second Harmonic Detection (two LVI derivative techniques) allow efficient defect localization.

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