This paper presents an effective device-level failure analysis (FA) method which uses a high-resolution low-kV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in combination with an integrated state-of-the-art nanomanipulator to locate and characterize single defects in failing CMOS devices. The presented case studies utilize several FA-techniques in combination with SEM-based nanoprobing for nanometer node technologies and demonstrate how these methods are used to investigate the root cause of IC device failures. The methodology represents a highly-efficient physical failure analysis flow for 28nm and larger technology nodes.

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