Recently, a new approach for isolation of open faults in integrated circuits (ICs) was developed. It is based on mapping the radio-frequency (RF) magnetic field produced by the defective part fed with RF probing current, giving the name to Space Domain Reflectometry (SDR). SDR is a non-contact and nondestructive technique to localize open defects in package substrates, interconnections and semiconductor devices. It provides 2D failure isolation capability with defect localization resolution down to 50 microns. It is also capable of scanning long traces in Si. This paper describes the principles of the SDR and its application for the localization of open and high resistance defects. It then discusses some analysis methods for application optimization, and gives examples of test samples as well as case studies from actual failures.

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