A variety of EFA techniques have been deployed to improve scan chain failure isolation. In contrast to other laser techniques, modulation mapping (MM) does not require electrically perturbing of the device. Beginning with a review of MM and continuous-wave (CW) probing as well as shift debug using MM, this paper presents three case studies involving scan chains with subtle resistive and leakage failure mechanisms, including transition, bridge, and slow-to-rise/fall failures, using a combination of these techniques. Combining modulation mapping with laser probing has proven to be a very effective and efficient methodology for isolating shift defects, even challenging timing-related shift defects. So far, every device submitted for physical failure analysis using this workflow has led to successful root cause identification. The techniques are sufficiently non-invasive and straightforward that they can be successfully applied at wafer level for volume, yield-oriented EFA.

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