The application of an individual failure analysis technique rarely provides the failure mechanism. More typically, the results of numerous techniques need to be combined and considered to locate and verify the correct failure mechanism. This paper describes a particular case in which different microscopy techniques (photon emission, laser signal injection, and current imaging) gave clues to the problem, which then needed to be combined with manual probing and a thorough understanding of the circuit to locate the defect. By combining probing of that circuit block with the mapping and emission results, the authors were able to understand the photon emission spots and the laser signal injection microscopy (LSIM) signatures to be effects of the defect. It also helped them narrow down the search for the defect so that LSIM on a small part of the circuit could lead to the actual defect.

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