Pulsed spot milling (PSM) and deposition (PSD) extends gallium ion beam technology for circuit edit. Similar to continuous spot mill, a single-point ion beam defines the basic milling profile, however, PSM utilizes a high-speed beam blanker to “pulse” the ion beam. This beam modulation replaces beam rastering by introducing a delay time which is fundamentally equivalent to refresh time during a typical scan pattern to enable and manage chemistry adsorption. Vias with a base diameter <50nm have been enabled by PSM in combination with advanced ion column designs, beam control parameters and endpointing techniques.

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