The spatial resolution and sensitivity of laser induced techniques are significantly enhanced by combining refractive solid immersion lens technology and laser pulsing with lock-in detection algorithm. Laser pulsing and lock-in detection enhances the detection sensitivity and removes the ‘tail’ artifacts due to amplifier ac-coupling response. Three case studies on microprocessor devices with different failure modes are presented to show that the enhancements made a difference between successful and unsuccessful defect localization.

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