In this paper, we focus on how to identify non-visual failures by way of electrical analysis because some special failures cannot be observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) or TEM (transmission electron microscopy) even when they are precisely located by other analytical instrumentation or are symptomatic of an authentic or single suspect. The methodology described here was developed to expand the capabilities of nano-probing via C-AFM (conductive atomic forced microscopy), which can acquire detailed electrical data, and combining the technique with reasoned simulation using various mathematic models emulating all of the significant failure characteristics. Finally, a case study is presented to verify that such defect modes can be identified even when general PFA (physical failure analysis) cannot be implemented for investigating non-visual failure mechanisms.

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