AOC herein describes a collection of material degradation features observed in Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) that have been intentionally degraded with a range of electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress conditions. Failure analysis techniques employed include emission microscopy, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results have enabled higher confidence in root-cause determination for failed VCSEL devices.

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