Accurately measuring parameter mismatch for analog MOSFETs, such as the threshold voltage (Vt) or W/L ratio, is often required in analog circuit failure analysis. The challenge in probing analog MOSFETs using atomic force probing (AFP) is contact resistance. Contact resistance between AFP tips and tungsten contacts can cause large error at high current. This paper discusses measurement error caused by contact resistance and the techniques to identify and reduce the contact resistance effect.

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