This paper describes gate oxide defect localization and analysis using passive voltage contrast (PVC) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) in a real product through two case studies. In this paper, 10% wt KOH was used to etch poly-Si and expose gate oxide. In the case studies, different types of gate oxide defects will cause different leakage paths. According to the I-V curve measured by C-AFM, we can distinguish between short mode and gate oxide related leakage. For gate oxide leakage, KOH wet etching was successfully used to identify the gate oxide pinholes.