X-ray microscopy has the potential to solve many failure analysis problems associated with advanced package technologies because of its ability to non-destructively inspect advanced multi-layer package designs. In addition, x-ray imaging has the potential to perform fault isolation in 3D using well-established tomographic reconstruction methods. The ability to perform high-resolution, artifact free tomographic reconstructions will be critical to the Advanced Packaging Failure Analysis community. This article discusses the requirements for a high-resolution, three-dimensional tomographic imaging microscope and shows how these requirements pose a problem for conventional projection based x-ray microscopes, specifically the requirement to place the sample in near contact with the x-ray source. The article then discusses the results from the Micro-XCT, an x-ray tomographic imaging microscope designed by Xradia, Inc., whose unique design allows for the required 180 degrees of sample rotation while simultaneously maintaining resolutions as high as 1 micrometer.

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