Scanning SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) Microscopy, known as SSM, is a non-destructive technique that detects magnetic fields in Integrated Circuits (IC). The magnetic field, when converted to current density via Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), is particularly useful to detect shorts and high resistance (HR) defects. A short between two wires or layers will cause the current to diverge from the path the designer intended. An analyst can see where the current is not matching the design, thereby easily localizing the fault. Many defects occur between or under metal layers that make it impossible using visible light or infrared emission detecting equipment to locate the defect. SSM is the only tool that can detect signals from defects under metal layers, since magnetic fields are not affected by them. New analysis software makes it possible for the analyst to overlay design layouts, such as CAD Knights, directly onto the current paths found by the SSM. In this paper, we present four case studies where SSM successfully localized short faults in advanced wire-bond and flip-chip packages after other fault analysis methods failed to locate the defects.

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