The continually increasing complexity of integrated circuits has made fault localization progressively more difficult. Despite significant imp rovements in test and diagnosis tools, probing is still required for acquiring new information and for confirming test results. For this reason, we have developed an optimized diagnosis -to-probing flow which significantly reduces the number of nodes to be probed and which dramatically cuts the cost of fault localization. With this approach, probing can be integrated in test and diagnosis operations to reach nodes which are known to be untestable.

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