Nanoscale devices such as carbon nanotubes, fluorescent nanoparticles, and molecular conductors serve as a benchmark for the tools and techniques that will be required in the future to analyze processing defects and determine the cause of electronic device failures. In this paper, the authors compare and contrast the nanoscale capabilities of several imaging techniques, including STEM-in-SEM, forward scattered electron imaging, photoelectron emission microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Along with the results of the various characterization techniques, the paper also includes a survey of the more common nanoscale devices, showing that many require more than one imaging method to make a complete and accurate assessment.

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