Scan testing and passive voltage contrast (PVC) techniques have been widely used as failure analysis fault isolation tools. Scan diagnosis can narrow a failure to a given net and passive voltage contrast can give real-time, large-scale electronic information about a sample at various stages of deprocessing. In the highly competitive and challenging environment of today, failure analysis cycle time is very important. By combining scan FA with a much higher sensitivity passive voltage contrast technique, one can quickly find defects that have traditionally posed a great challenge.

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