This paper outlines some of the optical and e-beam based techniques that can be used to isolate via chain failures. The Scanning electron microscope based techniques discussed are Passive Voltage Contrast (PVC) and Substrate Current Imaging (SCI). The optical beam technique discussed is Thermally Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) on the Laser Scanning Microscope. A combination of these techniques can be used to effectively analyze all types of via chain failures.

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