Locating the defect site in current devices is complicated by their density and size. Voltage contrast (VC) imaging and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging are non-destructive beam-based location techniques. We can locate the defect to single poly line, contact and via by combining EMMI, LC, layout and bit map address information. Some reliability failure analysis cases are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the beam-based techniques. VC imaging and BSE imaging are used to locate the defect site precisely. The subsequent steps include deprocess and precision FIB cut for sample preparation. SEM or TEM is then used to identify failures caused by gate oxide pinhole, contact junction leakage, high butted contact resistance or tungsten residue.

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