This paper examines the challenges facing IC failure analysis through the projected end of the CMOS roadmap and into the establishment of nextgeneration. nanoelectronic. devices. It will review technology forecasts and assess their effects on major FA categories. The growing importance of fault isolation is highlighted, especially for nanoelectronic ICs where deviations on the order of one atom or electron will find current instruments two orders of magnitude removed in capability. The potential impacts of self-assembled chips and fault-tolerant architectures are also discussed.