In this paper, some low yield cases in Flat ROM device (0.45 and 0.6 µm) were investigated. To find killer defects and particle contamination, KLA, bitmap and emission microscopy techniques were used in fault isolation. Reactive ion etching (RIE) and chemical delayering, 155 Wright Etch, BN+ Etch and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for identification and inspection of defects. In addition, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) was used to determine the composition of the particle or contamination. During failure analysis, seven kinds of killer defects and three killer particles were found in Flat ROM devices. The possible root causes, mechanisms and elimination solutions of these killer defects/particles were also discussed.