Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the damage caused by machine model (MM) electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing on the ESD protection circuitry of input pins stressed with different ESD voltages. Contact damage was observed in the n-well resistor of the ESD protection circuitry. TEM results of various cross-sections show the formation of a silicon melt beneath the contacts of the n-well resistor. Junction spiking was also observed on some of the stressed devices.

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