Vacuum carburizing 9310 gear steel followed by austenitizing, oil quench, cryogenic treatment, and tempering is known to impact the residual stress state of the material. Residual stress magnitude and depth distribution can have adverse effects on part distortion during intermediary and finish machining steps. This study provides residual stress measurement, microstructural, and mechanical property data for test samples undergoing a specific heat treat sequence. Test rings of 9310 steel are subjected to a representative gear manufacturing sequence that includes normalizing, rough machining, vacuum carburizing to 0.03”, austenitizing, quench, cryo-treatment, temper, and finish machining. The rings along with metallurgical samples are characterized after each step in order to track residual stress and microstructural changes. The results presented here are particularly interesting because the highest compressive residual stresses appear after removal of copper masking, not after quenching as expected. Data can be used for future ICME models of the heat treat and subsequent machining steps. Analytical methods employed include X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy, and hardness testing.