The cooling history of carburized heat-treated gears plays a significant role in developing microstructure, hardness, and residual stress in the tooth that influences the fatigue performance of the gear. Evaluating gear carburizing heat treatment should include a microstructure and hardened depth evaluation. This can be done on an actual part or with a test piece. The best practice for a test piece is to use a section size that closely approximates the cooling rate at the gear flank of the actual gear. This study furthers work already presented showing the correct test piece size that should be used for different gear modules (tooth thicknesses). Metallurgical comparisons between test pieces, actual gears, and FEA simulations are shown.