During forging operations, strain can occur through three primary mechanisms: strain due to load applied through dies, strain due to thermal contraction, and strain due to creep. In materials behavior models, strain due to applied load and thermal contraction are directly considered and predictions are based on thermophysical properties and flow stress behaviors as inputs to the models. Strain due to creep after forging (during cooling) is often more difficult to predict and capture due to lack of materials data. In particular, data that capture the changing flow stress behavior during cooling (rather than from isothermal testing) are not commonly available. In this project, creep strain behavior during cooling was investigated by physical simulations using a Gleeble 3500. Standard cylinder-shaped Ti-6Al-4V samples with 10 mm diameter were heated to below β-transus temperature (1775°F) or above β-transus (1925°F), followed by constant cooling rates of 250°F/min and 1000°F/min with and without applied load during cooling to 1000°F. Total strain for the tests ranged from 2 – 6%. Characterization of prior microstructure and texture was carried out using XRD, optical microscopy, and SEM. The results provide insights on the relationship of flow stress behavior and microstructure as a function of temperature and cooling rate and are applicable to forging practices. These materials data can be used as input for future process modeling, potentially giving better prediction accuracy in industry applications.

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