Rapid induction hardening of martensitic steel can attain the very high strength levels needed for light-weighting components subjected to high operating stresses. Specimens of martensitic 0.6% C steels were heat treated using a dilatometer to investigate the effects of heating rates of 5 to 500 °C/s to temperatures of 850 to 1050 °C on the transformation to austenite and subsequent transformation to martensite during quenching. Selected specimens were quenched after partial transformation to austenite to assess the initial cementite precipitate size formed in ferrite during heating. Other specimens were isothermally held at the austenitizing temperature to assess cementite dissolution rates. Higher heating rates increased the Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures, and lowered the Ms temperature. Alloy content and prior microstructure also influenced the transformation temperatures.