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wrinkling

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... matrix. Inclusion occurrences (such as spinel) can be minimized by allowing settling time after furnace cleaning, using degassing and filtration techniques, and avoiding excessive melt temperature. Figures 4 and 5 are examples of wrinkled oxide skins (aluminum foil near dip well and/or from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... thinner coat of paint, add slower-drying solvent, check that application and drying conditions are correct for the paint system used, and check compatibility. Fig. 17 The development of small wrinkles in the paint film in a pattern resembling a crow's foot Probable causes: Usually due to the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of round steel or copper tubing, with and without various supports against flattening and wrinkling. The four most common methods of bending tubing are basically the same as those used in the bending of bars: compression bending, stretch bending, draw bending, and roll bending. The method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... formulations containing a cobalt drier and an aluminum drier exhibit significant increases in hardness. Auxiliary driers containing zinc, lithium, and potassium are added to paints with a cobalt drier to inhibit wrinkling of the paint film. Wrinkling is caused by surface drying of the applied paint while the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... photolithographic techniques. Problems are caused also by internal stresses that are created in the films during the deposition process. When the films are separated from the substrates, the stresses often cause films to wrinkle or to curl severely, rendering them useless for testing. To alleviate this condition...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... at the tool edges may result in a porous part. The complex contours of most aircraft parts often require folds in the bag to take up excess bag material. If these folds are not properly made, or if large wrinkles are left in the bag, undesirable wrinkles may develop in the cured part. Thus, this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... inhomogeneous deformation) Boundary layer lubrication studies Sheet metal forming Tearing (localized necking), wrinkling and earring, Lüders bands, orange peel, fracture Limiting dome height, tensile ( R , n values), punch (forming-limit diagram) Note: Besides thermomechanical testing, a number of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... … … X Voids, foam joint … X X … … Disbond, shear ties X X … … … Lack of sealant at fasteners … X … … … Thick foam adhesive … X … … … Broken fasteners X X … … … Crushed core … … X … … Wrinkled core … … X … … Condensed core … … X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Wrinkle Chrome pickle or dilute chromic acid + standard wrinkle finish Not generally used in outdoor service High-gloss enameled Chrome pickle or dilute chromic acid + epoxy, acrylic, polyurethane or alkyd enamel Chrome pickle or dilute chromic acid + 1 coat polyvinyl butyral primer + acrylic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... structures. By comparing TT signal loss in adjacent good areas, porosity, unbonds, wrinkles, delaminations, and most inclusions can be detected. In the case of porosity, the signal loss can be correlated to standards. For example, porosity in the 1 to 2% range corresponds to a change of 4 to 8 dB in signal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used to describe the ability of a sheet metal to maintain its structural integrity while being plastically deformed into a shape. Failure can occur by tearing, buckling and wrinkling, or excessive thinning. An ideal material from the standpoint of formability should: Distribute the strain in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the layer of atoms in Fig. 1 . However, if a wrinkle is made in the rug similar to a dislocation and then moved a bit at a time by pushing the wrinkle, the rug can be moved easily. This process is analogous to slip-by-dislocation movement. All slip planes are crystallographic planes, but not all...
Book Chapter

By Barry Law
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as wrinkling are more evident when imaged at lower accelerating voltage (a) than at higher accelerating voltage (b), showing how surface effects are more pronounced at lower accelerating voltages. This additional information can be used to qualitatively characterize the transferred plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... issues, such as slow drying and wrinkling, which caused their use to fall off sharply. As alkyds were displaced, epoxies and water-based acrylics battled it out for the tank car and hopper car markets. The positives of the water-based acrylics are discussed subsequently. From the mid-1960s on, solvent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... wrinkles, disturbing the load-carrying effectiveness of the filaments. Autoclaves are the state-of-the-art for nonwound components, such as skins and panels for aircraft applications, for which the interface pressure between the continuous fibers and the thermally expanding mandrel may not otherwise...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... pressure-sensitive tape, and vacuum is applied. As the space under the bag is evacuated, the bag settles over the part, and any wrinkles present are removed. The lay-up is densified by the applied pressure, and excess resin and entrapped air are forced to the top of the lay-up. The mechanic then uses a...