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By Jian Cao
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Flanging is a process used to form a projecting rim or edge on a part. This article explores how to determine aluminum flanging limits in terms of fracture, wrinkling, and springback, and their influencing material and process parameters with examples. flanging fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Fig. 1 Sketches of discrete source damage for fuselage Fig. 2 Tension strengths for impact damage, open holes, and cuts Fig. 3 Compressive strength versus defect size for AS4/3501-6 wing skin laminate Fig. 4 Effect of manufactured wrinkle on compressive strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Sheet forming failures divert resources from normal business activities and have significant bottom-line impact. This article focuses on the formation, causes, and limitations of four primary categories of sheet forming failures, namely necks, fractures/splits/cracks, wrinkles/loose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... by a process in which a flat blank is constrained by a blankholder while the central portion of the sheet is pushed into a die opening with a punch to draw the metal into the desired shape without causing wrinkles or splits in the drawn part. This generally requires the use of presses having a double action...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... These advantages must be weighed against the following limitations: Probability of forming wrinkles Need for skilled, specially trained operators Restriction to relatively shallow parts with generous radii Restriction to relatively thin sheet (approximately 0.61 to 1.63 mm, or 0.024 to 0.064...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... important in the case of large parts (of more than one square meter), complex parts with ribs, or parts with a high fiber volume content (between 50 and 60%). A RTM simulation software should contain the following four critical features ( Ref 20 ): There are two basic types of wrinkling that can occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Selected Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) reports related to sandwich structures Table 1 Selected Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) reports related to sandwich structures FPL report number Title 1810 Wrinkling of the Facings of Sandwich Construction Subjected to Edgewise Compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... on the convex surface and wrinkling on the concave surface during bending. Source: Ref 1 Another consequence of the stress and deformation in Fig. 6 is elastic recovery of the plastic deformation. This results in springback of the sheet so that the final bend angle of the sheet will be slightly larger...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and wrinkling. Table 1 Minimum practical inside radii for the cold draw bending of annealed steel or copper round tubing to 180° Radii can be slightly less for a 90° bend, but must be slightly larger for 360°. Tubing outside diam Minimum practical inside radius Grooved bending tools Cylindrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the length of a tow and laterally from other splice locations. Each ply of the lay-up is visually examined for defects such as missing tows, wrinkled tows, fuzz balls, contamination/inclusions, or other defects. Nonconforming areas have the individual tows replaced by hand or the machine or the entire course...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Stress-integration procedures for both continuum and crystal-plasticity mechanics Finite element design Finally, various examples of the simulation of aluminum sheet forming are presented. These examples include earing in cup drawing, wrinkling, automotive stamping, hemming, hydroforming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Formability , Microalloying 75 Proceedings , Union Carbide Corporation , 1977 , p 517 – 530 10. Naziri H. and Pearce R. , The Effect of Plastic Anisotropy on Flange-Wrinkling Behavior during Sheet Metal Forming , Int. J. Mech. Sci. , Vol 10 , 1968 , p 681 – 694 10.1016/0020-7403...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... track the strain path to determine/predict the final strain conditions throughout the formed part. Those final strains are then compared to the strain-based FLC to show where the material may split, where it is dangerously close to splitting, and where it may wrinkle under certain part geometries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... thickness variations, and ply or fiber wrinkling. With any defect, the overall performance of the part is degraded. A composite cross section showing wrinkles in the plies is shown in Fig. 4 . The wrinkle started on the surface and disturbed the plies almost to the center of the composite lay-up. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... pressure results in parts with less sharpness or with wrinkles, which may require subsequent hand work. The production rate is relatively slow, making the process suitable primarily for prototype and low-volume production work. References 1. Lascoe O.D. , Handbook...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... of forming, and the type of lubrication. Die wear also depends on process characteristics. For example, high localized pressures develop on the tools that produce wrinkles, which then may produce prohibitively high rates of wear and galling in the ironing stage. Wear characteristics also differ for shallow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of woven-ply draping into fairing tool. Red zones (indicated by arrows) are areas of predicted fiber wrinkling. Courtesy of VISTAGY Inc. Fig. 2 FiberSIM model of woven ply draping into fairing tool after applied ply cuts. The shape on the right is the predicted flattened ply shape to be cut...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... scaling Uncertain accuracy Equilibrium not satisfied in general Mass scaling introduces error in static problems Oscillatory stress variation Elastic solutions are difficult and slow Conditionally stable Fig. 13 Detail of binder effect. As the material wrinkles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... will buckle or wrinkle. A restraining force is required to prevent this. There are numerous factors involved in determining whether blank restraint is required during any drawing operation. The two most important are the ratio of blank diameter d to blank thickness t and the percentage of reduction from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
.... The types of dies and other tooling used for conventional deep drawing are illustrated in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Schematic showing tools used for the first draw (top) and the first redraw (bottom) in deep drawing It is sometimes necessary for redrawn shells to have a wrinkle-free sidewall of uniform...