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woven materials

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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 2 Composite materials made from different types of fibers. (a) Woven glass fiber fabric composite revealing a multiphase-matrix morphology. Ultrathin section, transmitted-light phase contrast, 20× objective. (b) Kevlar (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) fabric composite cross section More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fiber (Kevlar)/epoxy composite part. Also there may be different techniques and tools for unidirectional (tape) products and woven (cloth) products. When unidirectional carbon/epoxy materials are used on the part surface, the fibers are prone to splintering and fiber breakout from the hole-drilling...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 14 Woven Kevlar cut with a wire saw. This material is used in bulletproof vests. When woven into thick pieces, it is used in tanks and is comparable to armor steel plate of equal thickness. More
Book Chapter

By Karl K. Chang
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0009242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract The chemical composition of Kevlar aramid fiber is poly para-phenyleneterephthalamide. Para-aramid fibers belong to a class of materials known as liquid crystalline polymers. This article discusses the manufacture of aramid fibers and the major fiber forms, such as continuous filament...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... reinforced fabrics hybrid fabrics woven fabric prepregs unidirectional tape prepregs multidirectional tape prepregs prepreg tow hand lay-up machine-cut patterns automatic machine lay-up molding compounds WOVEN MATERIALS, in laminate form, are currently displacing more traditional structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are: Higher proportion of waste from the wider material Higher cost of low-thickness fabric prepreg since the weaving process preceding prepregging is an added cost. Thicker woven prepreg with a fiber areal weight (FAW) of 370 g/m 2 has become standard since the weaving cost is around half...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... joints for woven fabric, or the transverse spacing between fibers is constant for unidirectional materials. The composite ply maps perfectly onto the tool surface without out-of-plane wrinkles or discontinuities. The manufacturing process (hand lay-up, fiber placement, tape laying) defines how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... increasingly important because they have the following advantages over laminates made from individual layers of unidirectional material: Improved formability and drape Bidirectional reinforcement in a single layer Improved impact resistance Balanced properties in the fabric plane The woven...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with time. The depth of the oxidative degradation (thermo-oxidation) is a function of the exposure temperature, the length of time of thermal exposure, and the chemistry and constituents of the matrix and composite material. Figure 1(a) shows a micrograph of an as-processed epoxy woven glass fabric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are large fiber bundles that are woven into a very thick fabric, which is used to build up part thickness with a minimum number of plies. These materials are available in large rolls of various widths. The full and partial plies in the part are cut from the prepreg rolls using large scissors, utility knives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Voids in fiber-reinforced composite materials are areas that are absent of the composite components: matrix (resin) and fibers. Voids have many causes but generally can be categorized as voids due to volatiles or as voids that result from entrapped air. This article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... In some composite parts, e addition of material combinations may be used for improving characteristics such as damping, damage tolerance, wear and abrasion performance, or environmental resistance. The addition of woven fabric or different fiber materials may be combined to achieve the desired performance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of raw materials that are available for use in fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix composites. It offers the engineer a shopping list that complements the articles in this Section that focus on design, manufacturing, and material properties. A key advantage of working with composite materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-reinforced polymeric composites are developed from thermoplastic or thermoset resins combined with either discontinuous or continuous unidirectional fibers or woven fabrics ( Fig. 1 ). Typical reinforcements consist of glass, carbon, or aramid fibers, but other materials, such as boron, ceramic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...). Also, the type of bag in which the edges plies at drilled or machined edges. batch. In general, a quantity of materials formed are sealed against the mold. breather. A loosely woven material that serves during the same process or in one continuous bleeder cloth. A woven or nonwoven layer...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 60–140 However, the previous numbers are for the fiber and the resin individually. When the fiber and resin are combined into either a unidirectional or woven fabric composite ply, the stiffness values will change drastically. Micromechanics will provide a calculated value, but material...
Book

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the concepts discussed in the articles under the Section “Constituent Materials” in ASM Handbook, Volume 21: Composites. The Section describes the major matrix resins and reinforcing fibers used in composite materials, as well as some...
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Braided material differs from woven and knitted fabrics in the method of yarn introduction into the fabric and in the manner by which the yarns are interlaced. Braided, woven, and knitted fabric are compared in Table 1 and Fig. 1 . A comparison of fabric formation techniques Table 1 A comparison...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of permeability of various materials are shown in Table 3 . Permeability of reinforcements, flow layers, and tubes Table 3 Permeability of reinforcements, flow layers, and tubes Material Permeability, 10 –9 m 2 Glass reinforcement Multiaxial 0.05–0.30 Woven roving 0.05–0.30...