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workability tests

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses a number of workability tests that are especially applicable to the forging process. The primary tests for workability are those for which the stress state is well known and controlled. The article provides information on the tension test, torsion test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article presents formulas for calculating the following: effective stress, strain, and strain rate (isotropic material) in arbitrary coordinates and in principal coordinates; compression testing, tension testing, and torsion testing of isotropic material; and Barlat's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article contains nine tables that present useful formulas for deformation analysis and workability testing. The tables present formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate in arbitrary coordinates, principal, compression and tension testing of isotropic material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract Workability in forging depends on a variety of material, process-variable, and die-design features. A number of test techniques have been developed for gaging forgeability depending on alloy type, microstructure, die geometry, and process variables. This article summarizes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the equipment design, procedures, experimental considerations, and interpretation of the torsion tests used to establish workability. It describes the application of torsion testing to obtain flow-stress data and to gage fracture-controlled workability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... factors. The article discusses the common testing techniques and process variables for workability prediction. It illustrates the simple and most widely used fracture criterion proposed by Cockcroft and Latham and provides a workability analysis using the fracture limit line. The article describes various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to a classification scheme, including testing procedures and specific process measurements, that facilitate the application of workability concepts. Using examples, the article applies these concepts to forging, rolling, and extrusion processes. The stress and strain environments described in the article suggest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract A cylindrical specimen compressed with friction at the die surfaces does not remain cylindrical in shape but becomes bulged or barreled. Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing. This article discusses test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... mechanisms. It discusses the empirical projections of absolute workability from various mechanical tests. The article concludes with a discussion on extrusion and drawing process design implications. drawing mechanical testing workability EXTRUSION AND WIRE DRAWING are very analogous processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract An important activity in metalworking facilities is the testing of raw materials for characteristics that ensure the integrity and quality of the products made. This article reviews the common material parameters that can have a direct or indirect influence on workability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... formability or workability of steels. It describes their formability characteristics and presents procedures for various formability tests used for carbon and alloy steels. Tests for bulk formability can be divided into two main categories: primary tests and specialized tests. The article compares...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article summarizes the types of hot working simulation tests such as hot tension, compression, and torsion testing used in the assessment of workability. It illustrates the use of hot torsion testing for the optimization of hot working processes. The article concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are summarized in this article. The most common testing techniques for workability prediction are discussed in “Bulk Workability Testing” in this Handbook. Much greater detail on these tests and on workability tests specific to a particular bulk forming process, such as forging, are given in subsequent articles...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tests: tension, torsion, and compression. The appropriate parameters for each of these tests are given in Table 6 . Figure 3 also shows the location of the most common bulk metal deformation processes in terms of the level of compressive stress state. Evaluation of the workability parameter, β...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... test ring compression test strain rate THE UTILITY OF THE COMPRESSION TEST in workability studies is shown in other articles in this Volume. A cylindrical specimen is relatively easy to prepare, and loading in compression simplifies the design of grips. Moreover, the absence of necking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... stress-strain curve tensile test viscosity viscometers coaxial cylinder viscometer cone-and-plate viscometer capillary viscometer workability data reduction punch testing COMPUTER MODELING OF DEFORMATION has become a popular engineering tool and is used with considerable success...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... the factors influencing the selection of a material for production, including material composition, heat-treated condition, surface finish, and cost of material. The article describes the material characteristics, such as terms formability, workability, castability, machinability, and weldability, that aid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in bending, upset compression of cylinders, and rolling. Uniaxial compression tests are used to construct workability limits that may then be used for evaluating other deformation processes that may suffer from cracking on free surfaces ( Ref 11 ). Fig. 7 Workability limit for upsetting, bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... In torsion testing, unlike tension testing and compression testing, large strains can be applied before plastic instability occurs, and complications due to friction between the test specimen and dies do not arise. For this reason, torsion testing is useful in the evaluation of bulk workability. Torsion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Upset compression testing has become a standard for workability evaluation. As shown in Fig. 14 , a range of strain combinations can be developed at the cylindrical free surface simply by altering friction and geometry conditions. The influence of friction and consequent bulging on circumferential...