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workability analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article contains nine tables that present useful formulas for deformation analysis and workability testing. The tables present formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate in arbitrary coordinates, principal, compression and tension testing of isotropic material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... factors. The article discusses the common testing techniques and process variables for workability prediction. It illustrates the simple and most widely used fracture criterion proposed by Cockcroft and Latham and provides a workability analysis using the fracture limit line. The article describes various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and the stress state and friction conditions present in the bulk deformation process. These two factors are described and brought together in an experimental workability analysis. bend test bulk deformation bulk workability testing compression test forging fracture limit line partial-width...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... loci shown in Fig. 10 , 11 , 12 suggests an empirical fracture criterion representing the material aspect of workability. The strain paths at potential fracture sites in material undergoing deformation processing (determined by measurement or mathematical analysis) can then be compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... occurs, giving rise to substantial tensile stresses. These stresses may cause free-surface fracture as well as subsurface cavitation without gross fracture. The analysis of free-surface fracture is described in the article “Bulk Workability Testing” in this Handbook volume. Because cavities can detract...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...)</xref> Uniaxial compression testing for workability analysis is usually carried out in a servohydraulic machine such as that shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Because strain-rate effects are large in high-temperature testing, it is important to use an apparatus with high machine stiffness. The furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... for stress in the necked region ( Ref 28 ) is recommended for accurate determination of the average flow σ ^ 0 stress. Even if the Cockcroft and Latham analysis cannot be applied to the prediction of absolute workability, the value of C , or even the area reduction itself, is an excellent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. The article reviews the process variables that influence the degree of workability and summarizes the mathematical relationships that describe the occurrence of room-temperature ductile fracture under workability conditions. It discusses the most common...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... segregation cold formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... considerations in applying a deformation process. Some fundamental aspects of plastic flow, flow stress, cold and hot working, workability, and formability are presented. The article provides information on free-surface cracking, central burst or chevron cracking, and cracking on die contact surface, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract A cylindrical specimen compressed with friction at the die surfaces does not remain cylindrical in shape but becomes bulged or barreled. Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing. This article discusses test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...Abstract Abstract An important activity in metalworking facilities is the testing of raw materials for characteristics that ensure the integrity and quality of the products made. This article reviews the common material parameters that can have a direct or indirect influence on workability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Accompanying this process is an increase in the workpiece diameter and a decrease in the length. In addition to the forging sequences, cogging typically also includes heat treatments to achieve specific metallurgical goals or to maintain temperature and hence workability. There are six different heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., on the other hand, have a distinct advantage from the point of view of the analysis for stress and strain and are particularly valuable for studies of work hardening at low strains. Fig. 5 Typical torsion specimen geometries used for workability testing. See text for discussion of dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... in Fig. 18 to 20 suggests an empirical fracture criterion representing the material aspect of workability. The strain paths at potential fracture sites in material undergoing deformation processing (determined by measurement or mathematical analysis) can then be compared to the fracture strain loci...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to plate or sheet at temperatures between 500 and 600 °C (930 and 1110 °F) to manufacture product with room-temperature tensile ductility of 15 to 20% ( Ref 4 , 5 ). However, wrought Fe 3 Al alloys do not possess adequate workability for cold rolling or cold drawing. Sikka et al. ( Ref 6 ) have also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characteristics, are covered. This is followed by manufacturing process considerations such as material factors, shape factors, process factors, and the characteristics of fabricability, namely formability, workability, castability, machinability, and weldability. engineered materials fabricability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by the specific hot-working operation. The ideal hot-workability test is one in which the metal is deformed uniformly, without instability, at constant true strain rate under well-controlled temperature conditions with continuous measurement of stress, strain, and temperature during deformation followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article summarizes the types of hot working simulation tests such as hot tension, compression, and torsion testing used in the assessment of workability. It illustrates the use of hot torsion testing for the optimization of hot working processes. The article concludes...