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workability

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Workability in forging depends on a variety of material, process-variable, and die-design features. A number of test techniques have been developed for gaging forgeability depending on alloy type, microstructure, die geometry, and process variables. This article summarizes some common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Workability is the ability of the workpiece metal to undergo extrusion or drawing without fracture or defect development. This article describes the limits of workability in extrusion and drawing in terms of fracture and flaw development and presents some comments on fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses a number of workability tests that are especially applicable to the forging process. The primary tests for workability are those for which the stress state is well known and controlled. The article provides information on the tension test, torsion test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the factors that determine the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It informs that workability depends on the local conditions of stress, strain, strain rate, and temperature in combination with material factors. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... before cracking or fracture occurs. The article reviews the process variables that influence the degree of workability and summarizes the mathematical relationships that describe the occurrence of room-temperature ductile fracture under workability conditions. It discusses the most common situations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the effects of mechanical plasticity on workability; that is, process control of localized stress and strain conditions to enhance workability. It describes the nature of local stress and strain states in bulk forming processes, leading to a classification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the equipment design, procedures, experimental considerations, and interpretation of the torsion tests used to establish workability. It describes the application of torsion testing to obtain flow-stress data and to gage fracture-controlled workability and flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article summarizes the types of hot working simulation tests such as hot tension, compression, and torsion testing used in the assessment of workability. It illustrates the use of hot torsion testing for the optimization of hot working processes. The article concludes with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article discusses the forging processes and equipment and forging practice associated with the forging of magnesium alloys. It describes the workability of magnesium alloys. The article concludes with a discussion on the inspection of magnesium alloy forgings. forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... materials selection nut formers parts formers process sequence design punches reverse forming size drawing surface finish tolerance transfer headers upset diameter ratio upset length ratio upset strain warm heading workability COLD HEADING is a forming process of increasing the cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forgeability, except for resulfurized and rephosphorized grades. With the exception of the free-machining grades and hot shortness due to residual elements in the steel like copper, forgeability aspects rarely limit hot forging of carbon and alloy steels into intricate shapes. Workability or, in this case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... accomplished below the β t of the alloy for the purposes of desired mechanical property development. This forging method is also referred to as α-β forging, B, β forging processes in which some or all of the forging is conducted above the β t of the alloy to improve hot workability or to obtain desired...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... give a much cleaner product with better hot workability. For severe forging applications, the use of remelt steels can sometimes be a critical factor in producing acceptable parts. These double-melted ingots are round in shape and vary in diameter from 450 to 1000 mm (18 to 40 in.), and in some cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the other two alloys. ZK21A has good weldability. Of the two high-strength alloys in Table 12 , ZK60A is more widely used because it is inherently fine grained and more workable. Of the elevated-temperature alloys in Table 12 , both EK31A and HM21A are readily forgeable. To ensure good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article contains nine tables that present useful formulas for deformation analysis and workability testing. The tables present formulas for effective stress, strain, and strain rate in arbitrary coordinates, principal, compression and tension testing of isotropic material. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract A cylindrical specimen compressed with friction at the die surfaces does not remain cylindrical in shape but becomes bulged or barreled. Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing. This article discusses test-specimen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... limit of these processes is determined by the workability of the material. See the section “Fabricability” in this article. Each process has associated with it a range of shapes that can be produced. Thus, the first decision in selecting a process is whether it is capable of producing the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... made, and scale-up of the gamma titanium aluminide alloys is approaching these levels. These strides have been facilitated by the development of detailed information on phase equilibria, phase transformation behavior, microstructure evolution, and workability as well as by the design and implementation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... homogenization ensures better workability. Homogenization literally refers to equalization of solute concentration in the single phase; however, it is often accompanied by one or several of the following diffusion-related processes: grain coarsening or recrystallization, precipitation of supersaturated elements...