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window-type fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of electronic materials, including L-shaped electronic flat pack, transistor base lead, ohmic contact window, and brush/slip ring assembly. The fractographs illustrate the atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the criteria for evaluating computer programs for composites structural analysis, including database capabilities, types of engineering calculations supported, interface and operating systems, and technical support. It describes the capabilities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the appearance and timing of the fire and even a blast event, if one occurred. Videos recorded or pictures taken with personal phones (inside or outside of the unit) during the event can be useful as well. Explosion Damage Assessment Types of Explosions In a failure analysis or incident investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... available around 1973, and scanning Auger microscopes, with submicron resolution, in the late 1970s. These two microscopes have much in common with the scanning electron microscope, and a section of this article is devoted to comparing the three types of microscopes. A primary use of the scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... radiation indoors or “behind window glass”. The requirements for the spectral distribution of xenon radiation are usually specified in the relevant standards. The traditional xenon daylight filters (often referred to as Boro/Boro type) generate a spectral distribution that is very similar to natural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... components can occur in several different ways, including esthetic alteration, deformation/distortion, degradation, wear, and fracture. In the case of failure involving fracture, there are a number of common plastic failure mechanisms, such as ductile overload, impact, creep rupture, environmental stress...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the types, properties, and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics and glasses. Principal product areas for traditional ceramics include whitewares, glazes, porcelain enamels, structural clay products, cements, and refractories. Advanced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... is a short excerpt from the hypertext version of the prototype HEMS system. The words in bold type are “buttons” that activate actions, either display of explanatory text or initiation of a query process, usually through query-specific windows: The HEMS Expert System provides help in the selection of tube...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., and biological implants. In terms of composition type, the clear majority of glass products, particularly those that may be regarded as commodities, are represented by soda-lime-silica glasses. Typical products include most of the flat glass and containers, much of the fiberglass, and many of the lighting...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are accustomed to “processing” images with this type of contrast, and correctly interpret secondary electron images as topography or pictures of the sample's surface. These principles of secondary electron contrast are apparent in the SEM photograph or a dimpled fracture surface, shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperatures. The second type, referred to as a cold break, also results from overheating, but is a two-stage failure process. These fractures exhibit an outer circumferential zone of irregular detail with evidence of thermal checks and intergranular separation and an inner fracture zone typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... glass (the most widely used glass, used in products such as windows, containers, drinking glasses, etc.), borosilicate glass (used in cookware and laboratory glassware, for example), and vitreous silica (the basis for fiber-optic systems). Fracture behavior will be described first, in order to discuss...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... It also explains where to look for evidence and how to collect samples for various types of testing. In addition, the article provides an introduction to fracture mechanics and explains how to predict and avoid fractures, including fatigue fracture, through testing and computational techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Fractography How does one go about examining fracture markings or crack patterns? The techniques of fractography provide the answer to that question. Observations of fracture surfaces may begin with the unaided eye and may include various types of microscopy: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... difference of 1 V. The voltage setting depends on the type of specimen and the desired resolution. Greater electron voltages produce a shorter wavelength than lower electron voltages. The smaller wavelength has a greater resolution and therefore has the capability to distinguish between two closely spaced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... U.S. Air Force aircraft as a result of a catastrophic in- flight failure in the 1960s. This philosophy requires a fracture-mechanics-based analytical demonstration of the ability of the airframe to operate safely for a specified period of time with periodic inspections of the airframe. The initial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... produced by either the NSA or PIA models. Numerous authors have discussed the stress distribution around cracks of various types under different loading conditions and proposed numerous criteria to describe impending fracture. Specifically, investigators such as Giovan and Sines ( Ref 23 ), Batdorf...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by secondary, circumferential fracture. The main fracture usually has a fishmouth appearance ( Fig. 6a ) and is either a thick-lip or a thin-lip rupture. Fig. 6 Type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H) superheater tube that failed by thick-lip stress rupture. (a) Overall view showing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... features that point back to the origin location. White lines were added to illustrate the chevron marks. Fractures that initiate in a direction not aligned with the longitudinal axis of the pipe have likely been influenced by stress other than the hoop stress. These types of fractures (nonaxial) may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and/or Hopkinson fracture process as described above. Postmortem studies are a type of Sherlock Holmes exercise in which scientific quantification of the structure/property manifestations in a material, due to exposure to a shock wave, is utilized to provide insight into the physical processes during shock wave...