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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article is concerned with gear tooth failures influenced by friction, lubrication, and wear, and especially those failure modes that occur in wind-turbine components. It provides a detailed discussion on wear (including adhesion, abrasion, polishing, fretting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the distinctions between the different forms of erosion. It discusses steam turbine blade erosion, aircraft rain erosion, and rain erosion of wind turbine blades. The article describes the mechanisms of liquid impact erosion and time dependence of erosion rate. It reviews critical empirical observations regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... a number of maintenance philosophies. The article concludes with a discussion on various condition monitoring in industrial sectors, including condition-monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants, road condition monitoring, and condition monitoring in wind turbines. acoustic emission testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... protection systems is 25 years. Similar requirements for corrosion protection also are essential for other techniques used to convert energy from seawater, for example, the exploitation of tidal stream, wave power, or ocean thermal energy. Average wind turbine sizes also have increased, with some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fields such as rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... examples can be found for an automotive application ( Ref 11 , 35 , 54 ), for offshore structures ( Ref 10 , 36 ), and for wind turbines ( Ref 12 , 55 , 56 ). These probabilistic tools can be applied to fatigue-life and crack-growth problems in the following ways. For fatigue-life problems, one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... in a low level of thickness optimization. Non-weight-critical applications such as wind turbines and lower cost sporting goods generally use glass fiber prepreg at as high a thickness as can be readily handled. For this reason thick unidirectional prepregs of up to 500 g/m 2 FAW and woven (and now...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... setup for large gears along with induction-hardening machine for hardening wind turbine large bearing rings with outside diameter as high as 3.5 m (138 in.) and weighing 5 metric tonnes (11,000 lb). Source: Ref 30 Fig. 1 Major steps and available techniques in the gear manufacturing process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for a press. Automotive castings with a DI grade of 500 (500 MPa, or 70 ksi, with 7% elongation) have less constraints than a wind turbine component. For foundries that produce heavy sections (more than 1 ton), the charge composition is usually in the range of 15 to 25 % returns, less than 40% of quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., defect-free products. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles There are applications where human access for performing VI is prohibited, dangerous, limited, and costly due to the need for extensive scaffolding and platforms. Applications include cooling towers, wind turbines, flares, aircraft, power-transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 32 ( No. 16 ), 2016 , p 1683 – 1693 10.1080/02670836.2016.1139030 65. Errichello R. , Budny R. , and Eckert R. , Investigations of Bearing Failures Associated with White Etching Areas (WEAs) in Wind Turbine Gearboxes , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 56 ( No. 6 ), 2013 , p 1069...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be creating stress ranges that resulted in fatigue crack initiation and propagation. As to the wind turbine applications, they too saw cyclic expansion and contraction due to heating and cooling, because the units were in use only when wind was present. Additionally, it was speculated that vibrations from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Process. , Vol 85 , 2017 , p 329 – 338 10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.08.020 3. Mabrouk B. , Hami A.E. , Walha L. , Zghal B. , and Haddar M. , Dynamic Vibrations in Wind Energy Systems: Application to Vertical Axis Wind Turbine , Mech. Syst. Signal Process. , Vol 85 , 2017...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... , “Retaining Ring Failures,” Workshop Proceedings: Retaining Rings for Electric Generators , EPRI EL-3209, Electric Power Research Institute, Aug 1983 3. Albright J.D. and Albright D.R. , “Generator Field Winding Shorted Turns: Moisture Effects,” Steam Turbine Generator Workshop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Typical applications include: Wear protection: Power plants, combustion engines, and mechanical components Corrosion protection: Steel constructions, wind turbines, and ships Repair: Machine parts Cold Gas Spraying (CGS) Cold gas spraying (CGS) involves accelerating unmelted powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... programs aimed at ultimately producing components for turbine engines for aerospace and power generation and components for space applications and a variety of industrial uses. Currently, these materials are considered to be expensive relative to available alternatives. Progress on development of design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... 10.1016/B978-0-08-027312-9.50005-5 35. Errichello R. et al. , Investigation of Bearing Failures Associated with White Etching Areas (WEAs) in Wind Turbine Gearboxes , Tribology Transactions , 56 , 2013 , p 1069 – 1076 10.1080/10402004.2013.823531 36. Pruitt H.B...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., such as a tube or pressure vessel, or a more complex shape, such as a wind turbine or helicopter rotor blade. As mentioned before, filament winding may use wet (or melted) resin or prepreg ( Ref 15 ). The fiber placement process is followed by some type of cure or molding process. This may simply involve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... against carbon pickup provided by stop-off paint (Condursal 0090) compared to copper plating Fig. 2 Gear parts for a wind turbine coated with stop-off paint (Condursal 0118) prior to case hardening Fig. 5 Low-cost feeding installation Fig. 6 High-end computer-operated feeding...
Book Chapter

By P.H. Shipway
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... As the bearings are nominally stationary, fretting occurs between the loaded balls and the race, leading to false brinelling. Such false brinelling occurs in a variety of contexts, from the nacelle yaw and blade pitch bearings of wind turbines ( Ref 19 ) to the mold-oscillating mechanism in continuous billet...