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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... inverse design of metalforming problems. The inclusion of elemental-incremental algorithms (slab element method or UBET) has widened the application of slab and upper bound approaches to transient problems, and the inclusion of piecewise continuous functions has increased their application to more complex...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... separate solid terminal phases, which are in three-phase equilibrium with the liquid at point P , an invariant point that occurred by coincidence. Then, if this two-phase field in the solid region is even further widened so that the solvus lines no longer touch at the invariant point, the diagram passes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-forged condition, dressouts and scale pits are commonly permitted to a depth equal to one-half the die-closure tolerance. These tolerances are widened when the forging is to be machined all over, and it is common for dressouts or pits to be permitted to within 1.59 mm (0.063 in., or 1 16 in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... voids at triple points and along grain boundaries ( Fig. 22 ). Fig. 22 (a) Incipient melting in A286 superalloy. (b) Incipient melting showing widened grain boundaries in A286 superalloy. Marble’s etch. (c) Aluminum 6061 heated close to the melting point. Keller’s etch Some second-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... elements are dissolved in the aluminum matrix. A range in electrical conductivity values from 26.9 %IACS for the maximum alloy content to 30.9 %IACS for the minimum is calculated. This range does not account for differences in minor elements across the allowable composition limits that would further widen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... light, increasing the kerf width in the center of the material, where the particle density is greatest ( Fig. 15 ). The most uniform kerfs in thick, organic materials are achieved by using slow travel speeds, which reduce the rate of particle evolution, and long focal-length lenses, which widen the kerf...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the surface steps resulting from plastic deformation caused by the initial impact pressure. The force of this impact stresses the asperity or surface step at its base and can produce a crack ( Fig. 8b ). Subsequent impacts by other drops can widen the crack or detach a particle entirely ( Fig. 8c...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... in the near-alpha IMI 834 alloy by the use of carbon additions and processing high in the alpha-beta region. Carbon is an alpha stabilizer that also widens the temperature difference between the alpha transus and the beta transus. Typically, beta stabilizers cause a widening (or flattening) between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Several different adjustments may be made to prevent this, including: Reducing raw stock size Reducing web thickness in the blocking operation before finishing Providing an adjusted blocker rib and web Providing a web with punchout or a pressure-relief pad Widening the rib to ensure prior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... fluidized-bed furnaces more flexible in temperature control, selection of fluidizing gas, and heat treatment atmosphere. The temperature limitations of early fluidized beds have been widened to include higher temperature ranges, resulting in the technique being applicable for most common heat treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... concrete technology have widened the application and use of this material. New developments in admixture technology include high-performance concrete (HPC) ( Ref 49 , Ref 50 , Ref 51 ), self-consolidating concrete (SCC) ( Ref 52 ), high-strength concrete (HSC) ( Ref 53 , Ref 54 , Ref 55 , Ref 56...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... void is the minute air gap between the folded-over films. Hydrogen will diffuse through the films and into the air gap, gradually increasing the pressure of hydrogen in the gap. The gap will widen, inflating the bifilm, first changing from a practically closed crack to an open crack; eventually, if...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... distribution for optimum combustion efficiency. Changes in melting rate can also be accomplished by changes in the charge mix ratio of cast iron components to steel and by varying the hot blast temperature. If oxygen injection is used, changes in oxygen volume can widen the melt rate control range. The iron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the gating system, which is also termed the choke, and frictional factors that depend on the complexity of the gating system and the casting. The choke is typically placed at the sprue base. The sprue itself is tapered or widened in cross section above the choke to slow down the metal and prevent air...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... casting was gated on the three end bosses, widening of two of the three bosses shown in Fig. 26 placed a larger area of the boss directly over posts A. This created a direct path for metal flow to the opposite heavy section and eliminated cold shuts. Increasing the size of these bosses added enough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... die at about 190 °C (375 °F) and cooled to about 120 °C (250 °F) by being passed between rolls. Inside a temperature-controlled box, the moving sheet, rewarmed to 130 °C (265 °F), is grasped on either side by tenter hooks, which exert a drawing tension (longitudinal stretching) as well as a widening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... resembling a pair of shallow bowls. Because of the cost of sinking the die impressions, rollering is more expensive than edging, provided both operations can be done in the same number of blows. Flatteners are used to widen the work metal, so that it more nearly covers the next impression or, with a 90...