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white cast iron

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., compacted graphite, and white cast iron. A table shows the correspondence between commercial and microstructural classification, as well as final processing stage in obtaining common cast irons. carbon equivalence classification of cast irons compacted graphite iron ductile cast iron gray cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Alloy cast irons are casting alloys based on the Fe-C-Si system that contain one or more alloying elements added to enhance one or more useful properties. This article discusses the composition of different types of alloy cast iron, including white cast irons, corrosion-resistant cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sequence, localized plastic deformation, and microcrack initiation and propagation of these irons. crack initiation crack propagation fractography malleable iron microcracking white cast iron Fracture sequence (increasing strain) illustrating localized plastic deformation and microcrack...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Malleable iron is a cast ferrous metal that is initially produced as white cast iron and is then heat treated to convert the carbon-containing phase from iron carbide to a nodular form of graphite called temper carbon. This article provides a discussion on the melting practices, heat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article presents a discussion on the melting, pouring, and shakeout practices; composition control; molds, patterns, and casting design; heat treatment; and applications of different classes of nickel-chromium white irons and high-chromium white irons. iron castings heat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... enhanced by heat treatment. Ductile iron also supplements and extends the properties and applications of malleable irons. It has the advantage of not having to be cast as a white iron and then annealed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast irons may be compared with steels in their reactions to hardening. However, because cast irons (except white iron) contain graphite and substantially higher percentages of silicon, they require higher austenitizing temperatures. This article describes the effect of heat treatment...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... equiaxed eutectic grains can be obtained by increasing the undercooling by superheating, by decreasing the silicon content, or by adding chromium or magnesium. The gray or white solidification mode of cast iron apparently depends on the relative nucleation probability and the growth rates of the graphite...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-alloy cast irons such as Ni-Resist or white irons are rarely coated. No single grade of cast iron will resist all corrosive environments. However, a cast iron can be identified that will resist most of the corrosives commonly used in industrial environments. Cast irons suitable for the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... strength in the microstructure. However, the ast iron alloys are not as easily forged, mechanically worked, or as weldable as steels. There are five generic types of cast irons based on the form of the excess carbon present: white, malleable, gray, ductile, and compacted graphite. Unlike steel, the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast iron, which usually refers to an in situ composite of stable eutectic graphite in a steel matrix, includes the major classifications of gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, malleable iron, and white iron. This article discusses melting, pouring, desulfurization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings because the initial powder layer fuses as it is applied. Curing is done by reheating the casting to fuse the resin coating. Primers may be needed for some types of polymers (such as butyrates and vinyls) in order to achieve adequate bonding. White iron is essentially free of graphite, and most...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is of great value in producing components that must be hard when machining requirements prohibit the use of components that are cast to final shape in white iron. In practice, the minimum thickness of section in which any given class of gray iron may be poured is more likely to depend on the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... desired formation of temper carbon in malleable irons has two basic requirements: graphite should not form during the solidification of white cast iron, and graphite must be readily formed during the annealing heat treatment. These metallurgical requirements influence the useful compositions of malleable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... matrix structure around the graphite, either as-cast or by subsequent heat treatment. Ductile iron shares and supplements applications with malleable irons. Malleable iron is cast as a white iron and then annealed to form a temper graphite structure. The energy costs of annealing must be balanced with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... observed in white cast irons ( Fig. 3 ), which are used in applications where high wear resistance is desired, and the brittle nature of such alloys is not a problem. Fig. 3 Massive cementite (white) in a white cast iron specimen with a pearlitic (dark) matrix. Etched with 4% picral. 500...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... at increasing distance from the tip of a cast wedge section, as shown by inset. Composition of iron: 3.52% C, 2.55% Si, 1.01% Mn, 0.215% P, and 0.086% S Progressing along the curve from the left in Fig. 4 , the following metallographic constituents occur. The tip of the wedge is white iron (a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... more of all manufactured goods and in all capital goods machinery used in manufacturing. Some of the major market areas of castings are listed in Table 1 ( Ref 2 ). Table 1 Major markets for metal castings Ferrous castings Gray iron Ingot molds Construction castings Motor...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... scrap containing sand must be reclaimed. These castings can be melted on the hearth, scraping the sand or insert off the hearth and keeping them out of the molten furnace bath. This keeps the furnace cleaner and the aluminum from being contaminated with iron (in the case of cast iron inserts). The...