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welding stick electrodes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., brazing, and soldering applications, which include hardface coatings, the manufacturing of welding stick electrodes and flux-cored wires, and additives in brazing pastes or creams. This article reviews these applications and the specific powder properties and characteristics they require. References...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), commonly called stick or covered electrode welding, is a manual welding process whereby an arc is generated between a flux-covered consumable electrode and a workpiece. This article discusses the advantages and limitations and applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... In submerged arc welding, the granular flux applied to the joint ahead of the arc may add alloying elements to the molten pool as well as shielding it and the arc. Figure 2 illustrates the shielding of the welding arc and molten pool with a covered “stickelectrode, the type of electrode used in most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... degradation. If the arc is too short, then it has insufficient heat to melt the base metal and electrode, which often results in the electrode sticking to the work. A speed that is too fast allows the weld pool to freeze before impurities and gases can escape, and the bead will be narrow and inadequate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... DCRP, direct current reverse polarity. Source: MIG/MAG Welding Guide, MIG C4.200, The Lincoln Electric Company Fig. 1 This is typical of constant current welders primarily designed for manual stick electrode welding (shielded metal arc welding). OCV, open-circuit voltage Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... heating rates and higher peak temperatures to be reached during welding. Also, due to the small scale of the electrodes, they are not equipped with internal water cooling that helps reduce electrode sticking. Comparison between microscale and large-scale resistance spot welding (RSW) processes Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... speed Deposition rate Inner wire stick-out Dilution, % Ferrite No. mm/mi in./min kg/h lb/h mm in. Undiluted weld metal 300 39 150 44 110 4.4 10 22 35 1.4 … 15, 12, 13 PZ 6400 (347) surfacing 200 31 150 40 80 3.2 6.6 14.6 55 2.2 8.6 12 PZ 6410 (308...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., the extra cycles simply heat up the electrodes. Hot electrodes are less capable of keeping the surface of the weld cool to avoid electrode sticking and metallurgical discontinuities on the weld surface. In addition, excessive weld time will also compromise electrode life, waste energy, and could even slow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in Fig. 4(a) . Often, a current boost or “dig” characteristic is made available (curve D in Fig. 4a ). A burst of extra current during the brief period of metal transfer shorting tends to alleviate sticking during keyhole welding or when weaving or whipping the electrode, especially with the more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Electrodes for projection welding copper are often made of copper alloys. Some electrode sticking may occur, mandating frequent dressing. Water cooling is necessary to reduce sticking and maintain the electrode surface. In some cases, either pure or sintered refractory metals are used to avoid sticking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of time maximizes the current range from minimum weld diameter through the onset of either cracking, overindentation, or electrode sticking. If weld time is less than this, there will be insufficient time for proper heat flow to occur inside the weld. As such, the weld will begin to exhibit adiabatic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... In all cases, current shunting will lead to a lower electrode life when welding zinc-coated steels due to the need to use higher welding currents to compensate for the shunt currents (this can also lead to additional electrode sticking problems) and to the rapid falloff in weld size that occurs under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... welding, flux-cored arc welding, high-velocity oxyfuel, oxyacetylene, spray and fuse, shielded metal arc welding (stick), and laser cladding. Examples of material systems applied on various oil sands mining components Table 1 Examples of material systems applied on various oil sands mining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... torch. Neither the torch nor the electrode should ever be immersed in water. All electrical connections should be wrench tight before the torches are used. The CAC-A process uses electric energy from a welding power source. The same safety precautions should be used as when welding. An operator...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., because changes in the angle can affect penetration and bead width. Electrode extension (stick out) should be short, and the amount should be based on joint design. For example, a maximum extension of 4.8 mm ( 3 16 in.) can be used for butt welds in thin metal, but a 9.5 to 13 mm ( 3 8...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Handbook , Vol 2 , Welding Processes—Arc and Gas Welding and Cutting, Brazing, and Soldering , 7th ed. , American Welding Society , 1978 , p 499 – 507 Electrodes Torches Electrical Power Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing Fire and Burn Hazards Ventilation Hazards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and the copper-nickel alloys. Class 3 materials are used in electrodes for seam welding. Electrodes must be sufficiently water cooled to minimize sticking to the work metal and to prolong their life. Face contours must be carefully prepared, and the electrodes must be properly aligned for welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...). The tape test (ISO 8502-3) checks residual blast material embedded in the steel. Other tests (not shown) can check for salt contamination: ISO 8502-9, the conductometric procedure, or ISO 8502-6, an extraction method. Courtesy of J.A. Kehr Fig. 6 After heating, melt sticks or thermocouples...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... content of coverings, and storage and redrying conditions, for low-carbon steel covered arc welding electrodes Table 3 Recommended moisture content of coverings, and storage and redrying conditions, for low-carbon steel covered arc welding electrodes Electrode class Recommended moisture content...