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wedge forming

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Book Chapter

By Koji Kato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... prospects are also given. This article discusses the influence of size and number of wear particles on polishing at three abrasive wear modes. These include cutting, wedge forming, and plowing. The article concludes with information on applications and prospects of polishing wear control. abrasive...
Book Chapter

By Charles V. White
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... in terms of tensile strength. The usual microstructure of gray iron is a matrix of pearlite with graphite flakes dispersed throughout. Section sensitivity effects are used in the form of a wedge test in production control to judge the suitability of an iron for pouring a particular casting. Mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in oil, the sliding shaft will drag oil underneath itself to begin forming the hydrodynamic wedge. It is not a visible wedge because the entire system is immersed. Rather, it is a pressurized region in which the pressure lifts the shaft. When the wedge of fluid is fully developed, the shaft takes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... deformation under a two-dimensional conical and pyramidal indenter in the form of a wedge. The slip line pattern in Fig. 7 shows that the analysis allows for metal flow past the indenter surface to form a ridge. The pressure normal to the indenter surface is given by ( Ref 6 ): (Eq 14) P = 2 k ( 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are classified as energy-restricted machines because their ability to forge a part is determined by the energy available in the flywheel of the press. Hammers The hammer is the least expensive and most versatile type of equipment for generating load and energy to carry out a forming process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... It provides information on the cantilever beam test, wedge-opening load test, contoured double-cantilever beam test, three-point and four-point bend tests, rising step-load test, disk-pressure test, slow strain-rate tensile test, and potentiostatic slow strain-rate tensile test for hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in Fig. 4 is the fact that cracking of wedge specimens occurred for T ≤ 1090 °C (1995 °F) and T ≥ 1200 °C (2190 °F). In both regimes, failure was intergranular. It was found from metallography and isothermal-transformation results that the alloy formed chromium nitride precipitates, the kinetics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and the transfer of load into the specimen through shear via wedge-type grips. General Limitations of the ASTM D 3410 Method General Limitations of the ASTM D 3410 method are described herein. Material Form The test is limited to continuous-fiber or discontinuous-fiber reinforced composites for which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the classification of hydrogen embrittlement and likely sources of hydrogen and stress. The article describes several hydrogen embrittlement test methods, including cantilever beam tests, wedge-opening load tests, contoured double...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... for externally threaded fasteners include product hardness, proof load, axial and wedge tension testing of full-sized products, tension testing of machined test specimens, and total extension at fracture testing. Product hardness, proof load, and cone proof-load test are the test methods for internally threaded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., and a mating disk, fixed to a stationary hollow cylinder. At first glance, it appears that both disks are parallel to each other; however, one of the disks has four to six inclined pads, as shown in Fig. 8(b) . The inclined pads form the required wedge. Due to relative motion between the disks, lubricating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... such as surface-breaking cracks or subsurface material properties ( Ref 3 ). The theory of wave interaction with surface features is challenging, and there are only a limited number of closed-form analytical solutions; perturbation methods can be used where the features are small compared to the wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., barreling, center bursts Upset, plane-strain indentation, partial width indentation, hot tensile (σ f , A f ) Forging Hot shortness, center bursts, triple-point cracks/fracture, grain-boundary cavitation/fracture, shear bands/fracture Wedge forging, side pressing, isothermal tensile or compressive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Process Requirements and Forging Machines The behavior and characteristics of the forming machine influence: The flow stress and workability of the deforming material The temperatures in the material and in the tools, especially in hot forming The load and energy requirements for a given...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and growth of graphite flakes occur in a pattern that enhances the desired properties. The amount, size, and distribution of graphite are important. Cooling that is too rapid may produce “mottled iron,” in which carbon is present in the form of both primary cementite (iron carbide) and graphite. Very slow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of the 1040 steel at three-thread exposure were yield strength, 1060 MPa (154 ksi); tensile strength (axial), 1200 MPa (175 ksi); tensile strength (wedge), 1190 MPa (173 ksi). For the 4037 steel: yield strength, 1110 MPa (161 ksi); tensile strength (axial), 1250 MPa (182 ksi); tensile strength (wedge), 1250...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... tests ( Ref 5 , 6 ). The tests involve the casting of a small sample to reveal the tendency of cast iron to solidify in the form of graphite or cementite. The chill test uses a small rectangular casting in which one face is a chill plate, while the wedge test employs a wedge-shaped mold in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... originating at their stress concentrations. The heads of connections such as nuts and bolts can affect aesthetics, streamlining, and other parameters. Another type of mechanical connection that is becoming increasingly popular is the “snap” connector. These connections are wedge-like tabs and grooves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... boundaries to form two types of cavities: wedge-type cavities ( Fig. 688 , 689 , 690 ) and isolated, rounded-type cavities ( Fig. 691 ). Fig. 688 : Wedge-type cavities in an AISI type 316 sample that failed by creep. These cavities are usually associated with cracking at grain-boundary triple points. 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... designs: a wedge-reed system and a lateral-drive system ( Fig. 1 , 2 ). In the wedge-reed system, the transducer is attached to a reed that vibrates in flexure and is terminated by a heat treated steel tapered tip that fits into a cavity at the end of the reed. The lateral-drive system is an inline...