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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) δ S = δ m ( Q = 0 ) = δ ( Q = 0 ) Finally, by integrating the fretting loop, the friction energy, E d (J) (i.e., friction work), inputted in the interface can be estimated. Both E d (J) and δ S variables can be considered to quantify the wear rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... related to their respective mechanical properties. Also of importance is the mechanical aspect of the abrasive/wear material interaction. Chemical processes, however, are also important, that is, corrosion or oxidation, because they directly influence the rate of wear of a material in the environment of...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... instead be displaced to one side), and even if some material is removed, the process is not repetitive and progressive. Rather, these latter phenomena are referred to as “surface damage.” Fig. 1 Major categories of wear The units selected for measuring and reporting wear and wear rates...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... information about wear rate and static and kinetic coefficients of friction. Reference 36 describes wear and friction testing of various composites at several temperatures. Selected data from this reference are shown in Table 4 . In this case, wear data are presented in the form of a wear factor K , which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... lead to very low wear rates, but there is still some concern regarding the relatively high friction and the deleterious effects of metallic wear particles. High-purity aluminum oxide is potentially an attractive implant material for total replacement synovial joints, because it is bioinert and can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... termed compound-impact wear. Most of the situations described previously involve impact with a small amount of sliding. Compound-impact wear has been shown to lead to much higher wear rates than normal impact alone ( Ref 2 , 3 ). This is thought to be due to enhanced removal of wear debris that occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... measured with a computerized three-dimensional measuring technique on tooth replicas over a period of four years ( Ref 72 ). The steady-state wear rates at enamel occlusal contact areas are about 29 μm/year for molars and about 15 μm/year for premolars. These data agree with earlier reports of 33 μm/year...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... – 83 ). The change in erosion rate due to particle shape depends mostly on the cutting component (although the particle shape appears to play a role in the deformation component also ( Ref 52 ). Spherical particles produce little or no cutting wear, instead of plowing, which results in B > A in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (see Fig. 5 ). The wear rate for a quenched and tempered low-carbon low-alloy steel (ASTM 517, type B, at 269 HB), which was used as a comparative standard in each test, is also shown. When the relative wear rate (wear ratio) of each test material is plotted against increasing carbon content on a log...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis for explaining the possible reasons of a given wear failure and thus adopting the most suitable countermeasures. It is also fundamental in basic research to help focus toward the goals, such as the reduction of wear rate or the optimization of friction. Table 2 Wear processes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... failure, wear rate alone (>0.1 mm, or 0.004 in., per year) has been linked to poor implant performance ( Ref 8 ). To date, wear remains the strongest correlate of aseptic osteolysis and implant loosening. This article addresses the biologic aspects of implant debris both locally and systemically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loss of material and efficiency, and finally component failure ( Ref 1 ). Among the different types and mechanisms of wear, adhesive wear is very serious. It is characterized by high wear rates and a large, unstable coefficient of friction. Sliding contacts can be rapidly destroyed by adhesive wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Experimental studies in hot forming suggest that sometimes good lubrication enhances abrasive wear. This is because lower interface friction permits larger sliding velocities at the interface and, consequently, higher wear rates. In addition, lubrication inhibits the formation of brittle (untempered martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... less strained regions can cause a local galvanic effect and thus promote corrosion. Destroyed or damaged passive film also results in local anodic and cathodic regions, leading to a higher corrosion rate. Surface roughening assists corrosion. The surface roughening caused by wear can promote...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... unique wear parameter or rating of a material. Consequently, a general discussion of wear testing must encompass overall methodology. This article presents a brief review of wear testing methods. Detailed information about significant wear mechanisms, tribological phenomena, and test methods appear in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and k is a coefficient. Therefore, wear rate is commonly reported as Δ V / L . For mild wear, k would be approximately 10 −8 to 10 −7 ; for severe wear, it would be about 10 −4 to 10 −3 . Sometimes a wear factor defined as Δ V / SL or k/3 H is used. Wear is sometimes reported as “specific wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polycrystalline diamond (PCD). The different materials vary greatly in wear resistance and toughness. Figure 1 shows a schematic of their relative application ranges in terms of machining speeds and feed rates. Higher machining speeds require tool materials with greater wear resistance, whereas higher feed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...). The different materials vary greatly in wear resistance and toughness. Figure 1 shows schematically their relative application ranges in terms of machining speeds and feed rates. Higher machining speeds require tool materials with greater wear resistance, whereas higher feed rates require tools with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...: Deposition rate Level of dilution (the amount of substrate material intermixed with the overlay material during welding) Portability of equipment To overcome the effects of dilution on wear properties, multiple layers are often employed. Microstructurally, hardfacing alloys generally consist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Hammers and high-energy-rate forging machines are classified as energy-restricted machines as they deform the workpiece by the kinetic energy of the hammer ram. This article provides information on gravity-drop hammers, power-drop hammers, die forger hammers, counterblow hammers, and...