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wear equations

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Presence of corrosive or lubricating media Both accelerate wear Equations 1 to 3 can be combined to obtain a model for the specific wear coefficient, K a (= K / H ), in abrasive wear by hard particles: (Eq 6) K a = 2 π · Φ H · tg Θ It can be seen that K a values...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ) compared their laboratory wear data with a retrospective assessment of the clinical performance of early Charnley prostheses based on PTFE acetabular cups. They adapted the simple wear equation ( Eq 1 ) to account for creep and the dynamic loading and motion cycle encountered in the hip joint: (Eq 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... been discussed in more detail by several authors ( Ref 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). One of the more general (and generally accepted) wear equations was developed by Archard in 1953 ( Ref 20 ): W = K s ( P p m ) where W is the volume of worn (removed or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Ref 5 , 6 ). An example is shown in Fig. 24 . Fig. 24 Abrasive impact wear testing equipment. Reprinted from Ref 6 with permission from Elsevier The following equation has been developed to establish a quantitative, semiempirical evaluation of the zero wear limit for specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., leading to high corrosion resistance. Metals and alloys having such capability are known as passive materials, which show apparent noblity in specific solutions. Resistance to wear is largely determined by hardness according to Archard’s equation ( Ref 41 ): (Eq 4) V = K f · l H where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries. This article describes the processes involved in erosion of ductile materials, brittle materials, and elastomers. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given on abrasive erosion, liquid impingement erosion, cavitation, and erosion-corrosion. In addition, the article provides information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article addresses the biologic aspects of implant debris both locally and systemically. It discusses the particulate debris, such as stainless steel, cobalt alloy, and titanium alloy, and soluble debris obtained due to wear from all orthopedic implants. Implant debris is known to...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Wear is mechanically-induced surface damage that results in the progressive removal of material. Because different types of wear occur in machinery, many different types of wear tests have been developed to evaluate its effects on materials and surface treatments. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article reviews the friction and wear of various dental materials that have been studied by fundamental wear measurements, simulated service wear measurements, and clinical measurements. The materials include dental amalgam, composite restorative materials, pit and fissure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fretting is a wear phenomenon that occurs between two mating surfaces; initially, it is adhesive in nature, and vibration or small-amplitude oscillation is an essential causative factor. Fretting generates wear debris, which oxidizes, leading to a corrosion-like morphology. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... treatments involve diffusion. Annealing to soften or homogenize, precipitation treatments to strengthen, or spheroidizing or tempering treatments to increase ductility all require the redistribution of atoms in a material. Gas-solid reactions such as carburizing and nitriding to increase the wear resistance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... wear and chemical agents. They may also be produced in the glazed condition. The change in firing technology from the traditional double firing to fast single-firing processes has enabled production of ceramic tiles with a glass-ceramic glaze ( Ref 10 ). Such dense coatings, which have a high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may occur from design (e.g., changes in section), manufacturing (e.g., surface condition deleterious inclusions or unacceptable porosity), and/or service exposure (e.g., corrosion and wear). The critical point is that if the causes (i.e., stresses and associated loads) contributing to the failure are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., for protection of bulk materials against corrosion or wear, or in optical applications (e.g., spectrally selective coatings); powders and nanostructures can also be prepared. Vapor deposition processes are traditionally divided into physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition processes, as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Wear of metals occurs by plastic displacement of surface and near-surface material, and by detachment of particles that form wear debris. This article presents a table that contains the classification of wear. It describes the testing and evaluation of wear and talks about the abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... demonstrates how the service life of cutting tools is determined by a number of wear processes, including tool wear, machining parameters, and tool force and power requirements. It concludes by presenting a comprehensive collection of formulas for turning, milling, drilling, and broaching, and its average unit...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Analysis of the failure of a metal structure or part usually requires identification of the type of failure. Failure can occur by one or more of several mechanisms, including surface damage (such as corrosion or wear), elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. This leads to a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article reviews the corrosion interactions between biomedical alloys, in particular iron-base, titanium-base, and cobalt-base alloys, in complex geometries and in applications where there are significant cyclic stresses and potential for wear and fretting motion. It discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... brief discussion on coatings to improve surface-initiated fatigue and wear is included, due to the similarity to RCF and the increasing criticality of this failure mode. The article presents a working knowledge of Hertzian contact theory, describes the life prediction of rolling-element bearings, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the corrosion theory relating to refractories on the basis of acid/base reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetic considerations. The tests to evaluate refractory corrosive wear are reviewed. The article describes the specific refractories used in...