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weak-beam microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... microstructure phase diagram precipitation recrystallization sample preparation weak-beam microscopy Overview Introduction Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) is unique among materials characterization techniques in that it enables essentially simultaneous examination...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., while portions that produce weak response signals appear dark. Fig. 1 Schematic of a scanning electron microscope. (a) Electron beam produced and focused to a fine spot on sample surface. Scanning coils enable the position of the beam to be rastered across a selected portion of the sample surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with that of the electron beam's raster on the sample surface. The result is a television-type image of the portion of the sample surface being scanned by the beam. Portions of the surface that produce strong response signals appear bright on the CRT, while portions that produce weak response signals appear dark. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the beam intensity in the different scattering regimes (see text for details) Fig. 10 Secondary electron images of a diesel soot agglomerate from a heavy-duty engine. (a) Environmental scanning electron microscopy at elevated pressures (600 Pa). Volatile components are preserved. 4000×. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... electron microscopy CBED convergent-beam electron diffraction DRS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy EDS energy-dispersive spectroscopy EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy ENAA epithermal neutron activation analysis EPMA electron probe x-ray microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Heinrich K.F.J. , Electron Beam X-ray Microanalysis , Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1981 7. Goldstein J.I. , Newbury D.E. , Echlin P. , Joy D.C. , Fiori C. , and Lifshin E. , Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis , Plenum Press , 1981 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the preparation process, because grain pullout often occurs in the final stages of polishing materials that have weak boundaries, such as air plasma-sprayed metals. Although there is no simple technique for avoiding these problems, the measurement of thickness or porosity by other techniques can give some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... and Amer N.M. , Optical-Beam-Deflection Atomic Force Microscopy: The NaCl (001) Surface , Appl. Phys. Lett ., Vol 56 , 1990 , p 2100 – 2101 10.1063/1.102985 136. Weisenhorn A.L. , Egger M. , Ohnesorge F. , Gould S.A.C. , Heyn S.P. , Hansma H.G. , Sinsheimer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structures and powders. Secondary electron contrast is provided mainly by topography, atomic number, and conductivity resulting from bombardment with a high-energy electron beam. The most common images, employing secondary electrons, show light and shadow illumination as if the sample were illuminated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., principles and applications Analytical technique Principle Target information Surface structure techniques Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Incident electron beam generates a secondary electron emission that is used to generate the surface image. Microscopic imaging of the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and formation of a stable suspension. Of the several methods used for deagglomeration (ultrasonic probe/bath, stirring, tumbling), ultrasonication with a probe is the most effective in achieving the separation of particles held together by weak forces. An optimal level of power input to the suspension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspections. Phased array probes consist of multiple transducer elements within a single probe housing that can be grouped to form a desired aperture size and then pulsed in different timing sequences. By varying the timing sequences, the ultrasonic beam can be electronically scanned, steered, and focused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... part. (b) Corresponding x-ray image showing a long wormhole defect along the advancing side of the weld. Courtesy of GE Fig. 2 (a) Beam focusing and (b) beam steering effects of a linear phased array Fig. 5 Ultrasonic pulse-echo technique for a solid-state weld examination. UT...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be accessed in the on-line version of Ref 29 , distributed via the TMS website (http://www.tms.org/TMSHome.html). X-ray topography is a diffraction-based imaging technique, in principle, the x-ray variant of dark-field microscopy (for a review of the technique, see Ref 17 ). Synchrotron white-beam x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... or millions of molecules that entangle with each other and interact through secondary bonding (e.g., weak van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding). Morphology develops as a result of structural aspects of a polymer, such as crystal size and distribution in semicrystalline polymers, molecular orientation from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscopy; EELS: electron energy loss spectroscopy; EBIC/LBIC: electron-beam-induced current/light-beam-induced current; CL: cathodoluminescence; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; SKPM: scanning Kelvin probe microscopy; SIMS: secondary ion mass spectroscopy; RBS: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; XPS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., at high substrate temperatures, and in high-rate electron beam evaporation. Gold is often used for replication in electron microscopy, and agglomeration of pure gold can be a problem; therefore, gold alloys such as 60Au:40Pd are used to reduce the agglomeration tendencies and provide better replication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and the general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... for details. Fig. 14 Depth-of-field comparison between optical microscopy (a) and SEM (b). Original magnification, 300× Fig. 15 Energy distribution of signals generated by the electron beam. Fig. 1 Basic components of the scanning electron microscope. WDS, wavelength-dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8