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weak-beam microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... microstructure phase diagram precipitation recrystallization sample preparation weak-beam microscopy Overview Introduction Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) is unique among materials characterization techniques in that it enables essentially simultaneous examination...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is synchronized with that of the electron beam's raster on the sample surface. The result is a television-type image of the portion of the sample surface being scanned by the beam. Portions of the surface that produce strong response signals appear bright on the CRT, while portions that produce weak response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article outlines the beam/sample interactions and the basic instrumental design of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which include the electron gun, probeforming column (consisting of magnetic electron lenses, apertures, and scanning coils), electron detectors, and vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... electron microscopy CBED convergent-beam electron diffraction DRS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy EDS energy-dispersive spectroscopy EELS electron energy loss spectroscopy ENAA epithermal neutron activation analysis EPMA electron probe x-ray microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... scanning tunneling microscope scanning probe microscopy atomic force microscope Overview SINCE THE INTRODUCTION of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1981 and the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1985, many variations of probe-based microscopies, referred to as scanning probe microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... (SEM) Incident electron beam generates a secondary electron emission that is used to generate the surface image. Microscopic imaging of the surface structure Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Microscopic force sensor (cantilever) is used to sense the force between a sharp tip and the sample surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) specimen shape fits into a TEM specimen holder. (b) Gold nanoparticles supported by amorphous carbon film on a grid (left), and various TEM specimen grids (right). Source: Electron Microscopy Sciences. (c) Three rectangular TEM specimens (indicated by arrows) prepared by focused ion beam and mounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The experimental techniques for microstructural characterization include metallographic technique, X-ray diffraction, electron, microscopies, and porosimetry. coating structure electrodeposition electron microscopy metallographic technique microstructural characterization plasma spraying porosimetry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., and (3) the use of voltage contrast, electron beam induced currents, and cathodoluminescence for such purposes as characterization and failure analysis of semiconductor devices. This article will provide detailed information on the instrumentation and principles of scanning electron microscopy (SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is intended to provide the reader with a good understanding of the underlying science, technology, and the most common applications of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments. It begins with a survey of the various types of FIB instruments and their configurations, discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are of interest, they can be imaged through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with diffraction-based contrast techniques such as bright field/dark field imaging, weak beam diffraction contrast, and high-resolution TEM. These techniques require imaging the sample in multiple angular orientations with respect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... or volumetric analysis. Bur- concerned and the energy levels involved. ity of light. ets are usually made from uniform-bore glass tubing in capacities of 5 to 100 mL, charging. In scanning electron microscopy blank. The measured value obtained when a the most common being 50 mL. See also and focused ion beam...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., experimental observations of metals and alloys have been limited to metallographic and electron microscopy investigations of either quenched or as-solidified material. On the other hand, in situ studies of microstructure evolution and several important process phenomena have been accessible through optical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and the general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... techniques include: Sieve analysis Quantitative microscopy Fraunhofer diffraction Neutron/x-ray scattering Time-of-flight Sedimentation Electrical zone sensing Mie diffraction Centrifugal sedimentation Packed bed permeability (Fisher subsieve analyzer) Photon correlation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is related to the microscopy aspect of electron beam analysis: the possibility of local analysis of a small region on the specimen surface. The physical separation of microscopic specimen fragments from their surroundings, which would be impracticable in most instances, is unnecessary since in EPMA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., the ultrasonic beam can be electronically scanned, steered, and focused to provide quicker coverage of a weld zone. Illustrations in Fig. 2 show how the linear phased array technique is used to focus or steer an ultrasonic beam for better detection. In both cases, the amount and sequence of delay in firing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... phased array, have been used for weld inspections. Phased array probes consist of multiple transducer elements within a single probe housing that can be grouped to form a desired aperture size and then pulsed in different timing sequences. By varying the timing sequences, the ultrasonic beam can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... exemplar testing. Scanning Electron Microscopy Principles A basic understanding of SEM principles and operation ( Ref 1 – 4 ) is useful in the generation of optimum results and obtaining quality images. (Only a brief description of the SEM instrument on electron beam production and its interaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at 10,000× to 2 mm (0.08 in.) at 10×, is more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than for light microscopy. The variety of signals generated by an electron beam impinging on the surface of a sample provides opportunities for enhanced imaging to reveal topographical and compositional differences...