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wavelength dispersive X-ray detector

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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 11 Schematic of wavelength-dispersive x-ray detector. Detector can mechanically scan a range of angles to produce a plot of intensity vs. wavelength, or it can be set at specific angles corresponding to the characteristic wavelengths of elements known to be in the sample, counting the x More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 4 Schematic of wavelength dispersive x-ray detector. Detector can mechanically scan a range of angles to produce a plot of intensity vs. wavelength, or it can be set at specific angles corresponding to the characteristic wavelengths of elements known to be in the sample, counting the x More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... above. Wavelength Dispersive Versus Energy Dispersive Detectors The x-rays emitted from the sample in an XRF spectrometer are detected and analyzed in one of two ways: wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive analysis. In wavelength dispersive instruments, the emitted x-ray beam is directed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the operating principles and applications of detectors for x-ray spectroscopy, namely energy-dispersive spectrometers, wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, and handheld x-ray fluorescence systems. The processes involved in x-ray analysis in the SEM and handheld x-ray fluorescence analysis are then covered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in 1924. Improvements in the gas x-ray detector by Geiger and Mueller in 1928 eventually led to the design of the first commercial wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer by Friedman and Birks in 1948. More recently, other detectors, such as the germanium and the lithium-doped silicon semiconductor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of the components of a wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Courtesy of Cameca Instruments Actual detection of the x-ray in a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer is accomplished in a flow-proportional detector. The x-ray is absorbed by an argon atom...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to those currently used. Soller achieved collimation of x-rays in 1924. Improvements in the gas x-ray detector by Geiger and Mueller in 1928 eventually led to the design of the first commercial wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer by Friedman and Birks in 1948. A simplified schematic of an XRF...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 7 Wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrum of AISI type 347 stainless steel. Philips PW-1410 sequential x-ray spectrometer; molybdenum x-ray tube, 30 kV, 30 mA; P-10 flow proportional detector; LiF(200) analyzing crystal; fine collimation; 100 kcps full scale More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 12 Wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrum of AISI type 347 stainless steel. Philips PW-1410 sequential x-ray spectrometer; molybdenum x-ray tube, 30 kV, 30 mA; P-10 flow-proportional detector; LiF(200) analyzing crystal; fine collimation; 100 kcps full scale More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...” for discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of these different types of x-ray detectors.) Scanning electron microscopes are occasionally equipped with a wavelength dispersive detector to facilitate x-ray mapping, but more often such mapping is done using an electron probe microanalyzer, as will be described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is a detailed account of the principles of electron-excited X-ray microanalysis. It begins by discussing the physical basis of electron-excited X-ray microanalysis and the advantages and limitations of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and wavelength dispersive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... can be designed to measure any or all of these features. Theory Nature and Generation of X-Rays X-rays are a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum having wavelengths from 10 −11 to 10 −8 m (0.1 to 100 Å). In laboratory instruments, discrete wavelengths in the range of 0.5 to 2.5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., in principle, a data set can be obtained by using a fixed wavelength and scanning θ (angle dispersive) or by fixing θ and scanning the wavelength (energy dispersive). Most instruments scan θ; however, new radiation sources for x-rays and neutrons composed of a broad spectrum of high-intensity wavelengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... detector (silicon or germanium solid-state detector). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy enables the qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of elements with an atomic number ≥5 (boron). x-ray detection may also be carried out by wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, which consist of a crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the desired wavelength. Crystals of graphite, silicon, germanium, and quartz are often used for this purpose in modem devices. A third method is possible when the detector of the x-ray beam can discriminate the energies of the individual x-rays. Such a detector can be set electronically to accept only...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... phasing method when options of laboratory x-ray wavelengths were limited. With the ability to tune the x-ray wavelength at synchrotron beamlines, single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) methods became widely used. Both methods take advantage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... these energy-loss criteria. Such thin-target analysis was not normally performed before development of intrinsic germanium, lithium-doped germanium, and lithium-doped silicon energy-dispersive x-ray detectors, because wavelength-dispersive x-ray detection is highly inefficient and generally uses more massive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... These methods include light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. atomic force...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., such as thin air filters and powdered biological and geological samples, that meet these energy-loss criteria. Such thin-target analysis was not normally performed before development of intrinsic germanium, lithium-doped germanium, and lithium-doped silicon energy dispersive x-ray detectors, because wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of sufficiently short-wavelength x-ray radiation. Intensities of the resulting fluorescent x-rays are smaller by a factor of roughly 1000 than an x-ray beam obtained by direct excitation from a beam of electrons. Only availability of high-intensity x-ray tubes, very sensitive detectors, and suitable x-ray optics...