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wave propagation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... describes the basic equipment in ultrasonic inspection systems, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of these systems. It discusses the applications of ultrasonic inspection and also the general characteristics of ultrasonic waves in terms of wave propagation, longitudinal waves, transverse waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...; that is, the oscillating electric and magnetic fields that constitute it are transverse to the direction of travel of the wave. The relative directions of these two fields and the direction of propagation of the wave are shown schematically in Fig. 10 . As the wave travels along the z -axis, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... characterization are covered, alongside recent advances such as nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. Rayleigh waves are a type of SAW that propagates along the surface of a solid half-space ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The mathematics describing Rayleigh waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... oil and gas industry. Guided wave testing is used to detect defects in long structural components such as pipelines by making use of elastic waves that propagate along the structure. The waves, which are typically in the upper audio-frequency range or low ultrasonic range (10 to 150 kHz), are guided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... flash pulse or a longer step or temporally modulated sequence (e.g., a square wave or sinusoid). Optical excitation is widely used for SET because it is relatively easy to apply over a large area, and the sources are compact and cost-effective. Lamps are usually housed in reflectors to shape the spatial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transducers, which vibrate at their resonant frequency due to a high-frequency electronic generator source, induce amplified vibration of the diaphragm. This amplified vibration is the source of positive and negative pressure waves that propagate through the solution in the tank. The operation is similar to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... waves are often advantageous for inspecting thin aerospace components such as wing skins. Consider a longitudinal plane wave of particle displacement u ( x,t ) propagating in the x -direction in a nonlinear isotropic elastic solid. The ultrasonic wave is generated by a transmitter at x = 0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... material at an angle and propagates by successive zigzag reflections from the specimen boundaries until it is interrupted by a discontinuity or boundary, where the beam reverses direction and is reflected back to the transducer. Fig. 18 Ultrasonic shear wave in a plate Fig. 19 Problem of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ). The TOFD technique provides information not only on the diffracted waves but also on the different propagation modes, such as: The lateral wave: This wave mode propagates following the shortest path between the transducers, and it is the first signal in the B-scan screen. This signal represents...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., surface, near-surface, edge Size: mean diameter, or estimate of the major and minor axes A fracture tends to propagate as a spreading front, much like a wave front (that is, as a line). Markings are formed when something happens to disturb the propagation of this front (e.g., the fracture stops...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... crack front and an elastic shock wave in the material ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 15 Wallner lines (arrow) on the surface of a fractured WC-Co specimen. TEM formvar replica. Etched with 5% HCl. (S.B. Luyckx, University of the Witwatersrand) A fracture that is the result of repetitive or cyclic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... vibrations, of the atomic or molecular particles of a substance about the equilibrium position of those particles. Ultrasonic waves can propagate in elastic media, which can be solid or liquid. Ultrasonic waves in the megahertz region are severely attenuated in air and cannot propagate in a vacuum. An...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... parallel to the y -axis. Continuous line: P-wave; dotted line: S-wave The form of the primitive wave is profoundly changed by numerous reflections and mode conversions during propagation from source to sensor. The signal generated by the sensor has little resemblance to the original source motion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... different from the conventional time SAFT, although sometimes called F-SAFT, are based on a plane wave decomposition of the acoustic field for each frequency combined with a back-propagation algorithm ( Ref 68 , 69 , 70 ). It also should be noted that SAFT processing could be applied to laser-generated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... frequency is increased sufficiently, the incident wave can propagate into the crack, and the response is then sensitive to crack depth. The use of microwaves is in some cases limited by their inability to penetrate deeply into conductors or metals. This means that nonmetallic materials inside a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, applications, and selection criteria of various technologies and transduction modalities that can generate and detect ultrasonic waves. These include piezoelectric transducers, electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture. The trapezoidal WC grain at center (transgranular fracture) exhibits Wallner lines (indicated by arrow), which result from the interaction between the advancing crack front and a simultaneously propagating elastic wave. Fracture surface was etched in 5% HCl to remove the cobalt. TEM Formvar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue, are typically oriented normal to the direction of tensile stress and lack gross plastic deformation. Features not associated with slow progressive cracking have also been mistakenly identified as beach marks. Rib marks, break wave markings ( Ref 20 ), and Wallner lines in brittle materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., discontinuously reinforced composites and continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. Processing methods include cold pressing, sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, melt infiltration, directed metal oxidation, sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and joining. A table...