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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the quality of the seal, namely, salt spray, modified dye stain, acid dissolution, impedance, copper accelerated acetic acid salt spray, high-alkaline resistance, SO 2 fog, and clorox tests. aluminum anodizing sealing hot deionized water sealing hot nickel acetate sealing midtemperature sealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... no staining is allowed for a white metal blast. Fig. 3 White metal surface blast cleaned in accordance with SSPC-SP 5. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. Another option for preparing steel is pressurized water cleaning or waterjetting ( Fig. 4 ). The use of pressurized water to prepare steel surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... (as with abrasive blast cleaning), whereas at other times these steps must be performed separately (as with water cleaning or chemical paint stripping). Deficient surface preparation is perhaps the most common cause of premature coating failure. A major problem with detecting deficient surface preparation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... For estimating the amount of massive phase. Stains matrix and leaves phase white. Staining improves as magnesium-ion content increases with use. 6 Acetic-picral: 5 mL acetic acid, 6 g picric acid, 10 mL water, 100 mL ethanol (95%) Immerse specimen face up with gentle agitation until face turns brown. Wash...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., burnt-in oil, water stains, or other films, such as the iridescent or colored films formed during heat treating. This acid mixture cleans and imparts a slightly etched appearance to the surface, preparing it for painting, caustic etching, conversion coating, or anodizing. Nonpolluting, proprietary...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel for metallographic study is similar to preparation of galvanized steel; both types of coating are quite soft. Staining is not a problem with aluminum-coated steel sheet, so water can be used as a suspending fluid and lubricant. Stainless-Clad and Chromized Steel Sheet Stainless-clad...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... of film formation is poor, cracks and microscopic voids can be present in the film. These film defects can lead to poor barrier properties for the coating, such as decreased water and corrosion resistance, lower efflorescence resistance over concrete, or worse stain-blocking properties. As an example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coating system or a lower blast profile. Protect coating from contamination with grinding dust and so on. Rust Staining Fig. 33 A light staining on the surface of the paint caused by the precipitation of ferrous oxide from adjacent exposed steel Probable causes: Water runoff from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... brass. Wood soot and activated charcoal are added to the solution to prevent this condition. After bright dipping and thorough rinsing in cold running water, stain or tarnish may be removed by dipping in a cyanide solution. Some proprietary bright dips, incorporated with corrosion inhibitors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and completely with flowing water, to prevent an insoluble fluoride surface stain from forming. This stain is extremely detrimental to corrosion resistance in hot water and steam environments of nuclear reactors. Extreme precautions to ensure a rapid and effective rinse are required for this service. A rapid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... include bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... in close proximity to print heat, heating of the build tray, or heating of the entire build envelope. Notably, this is the step at which the coffee stain effect can appear. After the printhead pass, the build tray descends (or the printhead rises) a distance equivalent to the desired layer thickness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... condition with a layer of oil or creamy emulsion floating on the surface. Such separation is detrimental. Conversely, water that is too soft will cause foaming. Use of a specially formulated hard-water soluble oil with soft water can lead to the formation of a bluish-black stain on freshly ground ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Solution 2:  35 g sodium bisulfite 100 mL water Etch with solution 1 for 30 s or with solution 2 for 2 min to distinguish between Co metal, cobalt oxide, and sulfides. Both stain the Co matrix brown, oxide remains dark gray, cobalt sulfide remains yellowish, and MnS remains bluish gray. Tint etch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... influence the pot life and dry time result of a formulated coating (e.g., pigments, temperature, volume solids, residual water content, solvent, additives, etc.), the qualitative comparisons of gel time data on resin alone (i.e., unpigmented mixtures of polyaspartic ester and polyisocyanate) are useful. Gel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., provided it is tightly adherent. Staining may consist of light shadows, rust stains, oxide stains, or stains from previously applied coatings (provided the coating is not asphaltic). Pressurized Water Cleaning Pressurized water cleaning is a good method for cleaning surfaces, but it cannot etch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... be 18 gage (1.2141 mm, or 0.0478 in.). Thinner sections result in oil canning, which leads to irregular weathering, as noted in Fig. 12 . Fig. 12 Clad columns with less than 18-gage cover, resulting in oil canning Example 9: Removing or Avoiding Stains Staining can result when water...
Book Chapter

By Barry Law
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... The National Environmental Policy Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1969, saw the government become the “protector” of earth, air, land, and water. The 1970s The first celebration of Earth Day in 1970, in which 20 million Americans took to the streets, highlighted the determination of the public...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for anodizing are outlined below: Increase corrosion resistance: Sealed anodic coatings of aluminum oxide are corrosion resistant and highly resistant to atmospheric and salt-water attack. The anodic coating protects the underlying metal by serving as a barrier to would-be corrosive agents. In order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... have good wet and dry slip resistance. Concrete can also be stained or dyed to provide impressive aesthetics. Stains are metallic salts that chemically react with the concrete. Dyes are water- or solvent-soluble organics that fill the porosity of the concrete with color. Both are surface treatments...