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water immersion quenching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... be controlled by proper racking. It concludes with information on agitation and the quench tank system used in the quenching of aluminum alloys. agitation system aluminum alloys cooling rate immersion water quenching polyalkylene glycol polymer quenchants quench sensitivity quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... bismuth, and molten sodium. It also contains tables that list the physical properties of lead, bismuth, sodium, and molten sodium. molten bismuth molten lead molten sodium physical properties quenchants quenching OIL, WATER, AND POLYMER solution baths are frequently used when quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... quenching medium after solution treatment of most titanium alloys, because rapid cooling is required. When a hot part is immersed in water, excessive heat will vaporize water instantly, forming a continuous vapor blanket around the part, particularly during the early stages of quenching. Depending on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... uniform flow and temperature control coupled with safe water addition More reliable purity quench salts supplied in more convenient and safer-to-use pelleted form Water-addition monitoring systems using fast quench-rate determination Development of quantitative salt quench rate and quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...), to minimize the temperature increase upon probe immersion into the quenchant. The quenchant bath temperature is controlled, usually by the use of in-line heating elements and water-cooled copper coils. The quenchant velocity is controlled by a variable-speed pump. The analog signal from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... provide useful information on the quenching process ( Ref 7 ). Minnaert ( Ref 8 ) discovered sounds generated in water boiling under different thermal conditions and at different pressures and developed a numerical model of dynamics of a bubble. The bubble response to pressure changes in the liquid that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... operation is that any residual stresses already present due to fabrication are completely relieved. The origin of residual stresses during quenching can be illustrated qualitatively using the example of a rectilinear block immersed into cold water. Immediately after immersion, tensile plastic strains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for systems using brine or caustic solutions that usually result in a higher maintenance cost. Alloy trays and fixtures of the 25Cr-12Ni or 35Ni-15Cr type can be quenched in oil quite satisfactorily but not in water, caustic solutions, or brine. Wherever possible, the design of the work tank...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... atmosphere furnaces can be adapted for vacuum heat treating by adding a vacuum-tight retort connected to a suitable pumping system, furnace equipment developed especially for vacuum heat treating is generally used. There are two distinctly different types of vacuum furnaces: hot wall (no water cooling of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... agitation to maintain complete dispersion. A diphase, multiphase, or floating layer emulsion forms two layers in the cleaning tank and is used in this separated condition. Work is immersed through the solvent-rich surface layer into the water-rich lower layer, permitting both cleaning phases to come in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Dark red Molten potassium nitrate Temperature, 650–700 °C (1200–1300 °F); immersion time, ≤20 s; hot water quench Parts must be lacquered. Black (a) Solution A: liquid sulfur, 28 g (1 oz); sulfurated potash, 57 g (2 oz); ammonium hydroxide (sp gr 0.89), 7 g ( 1 4 oz); water, 4 L (1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... mild detergent and hot water, within a few minutes the process of cavitation will work the lipstick out from between the slide assembly. It is the powerful scrubbing action and the extremely small size of the jet action that enable this to happen. The basic components of an ultrasonic cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... metallurgical transformation during quench hardening. Source: Ref 5 Water, brine solution, oil, polymer, and so on are used as conventional quenching media. Water and brine solution are restricted to quenching simple shapes and steels of comparatively low hardenability because of the occurrence of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or corrosion. If brass or steel wire wheels are used, the embedded particles can be removed by immersing the work in a nitric acid solution (1 part water to 1 part acid by volume) at room temperature. The satin finish processes in which a greaseless abrasive compound is used are essentially dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... process as in the aforementioned simulation has been performed experimentally for validation. Figure 11 shows a photo of the bottom XZ -plane 60 by 120 mm (2.4 by 4.7 in.) during water quenching with vertical immersion. The breakdown of film boiling (arrows) on the thinner legs happened significantly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (d) 190 375 12–15 Peak aged (d) (a) Material should be quenched from the solution-treating temperature as rapidly as possible and with minimum delay after removal from the furnace. When material is quenched by total immersion in water, unless otherwise indicated, the water should be at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... also discusses the mechanisms used for strengthening aluminum alloys, including solid-solution hardening, grain-size strengthening, work or strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. The process of precipitation hardening involves solution heat treatment, quenching, and subsequent aging of the as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... galvanic interactions between uranium, its alloys, and other metals. The article provides information on the atmospheric corrosion of uranium based on oxidation in dry air or oxygen, water vapor, and oxygen-water vapor mixtures depending upon particular storage conditions. The mechanism and morphology of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... generally is accomplished by immersion in water, oil, polymer solution, or salt, although forced air is sometimes used. As a result of quenching, production parts must develop an acceptable as-quenched microstructure and, in critical areas, mechanical properties that will meet minimum specifications after...