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water hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article presents information regarding the use of protective coatings in municipal potable water systems, including raw water collection and transmission, water treatment plants, and treated water distribution. It provides useful guidance for the selection and use of protective...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., austenitizing, quenching, preheating, and tempering commonly employed in certain steels. These are water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, medium-alloy air-hardening cold-work tool steels, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the characteristics, composition limits, and classification of wrought tool steels, namely high-speed steels, hot-work steels, cold-work steels, shock-resisting steels, low-alloy special-purpose steels, mold steels, water-hardening steels, powder metallurgy tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... with conventional hardening, the alloy content of the steel determines the type of quench that should be used. The quenchant may be water, a brine solution, a glycol-based polymer quench, or air. By reducing the pressure of the quenchant, the rate of cooling by spray quenching can be reduced from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... agreement has been shown using QFA to predict the as-quenched hardness for a comparatively low-hardenability carbon steel, AISI 1045, and a low-alloy AISI 4140 steel, which is shown in Table 4 ( Ref 10 , 11 , 12 ). Table 3 Measured and predicted hardnesses at 17 different positions in a water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... distortion. For example, free or compressed air quenching is typically used for high-hardenability steels or surface-hardened steels with small case depths in which relatively little heat needs to be removed by the thermal conduction of the cold core. Water continues to be an excellent quenchant when used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... considerably improved, particularly when nitrogen is retained in solid solution in the “diffusion zone” beneath the compound layer. This retention normally is achieved by quenching in oil or water from the treatment temperature. Some distinction should be drawn between two different processes with similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... (UNS S17400), 36 to 44 HRC. Seals were missing from both fractured and unbroken yokes. The inside of the broken part was filled with particulate matter, sand, and corrosion products, indicating that water had been present. Fig. 740 : Unbroken deflector yoke. Note pitting. 4×. Fig. 741 : Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... nitriding ( Table 2 ), they have the advantage of being suitable for plain carbon steels. Flame hardening consists of austenitizing the surface of a steel by heating with an oxyacetylene or oxyhydrogen torch and immediately quenching with water or water-based polymer. The result is a hard surface layer of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the more commonly available random PAG copolymers ( Ref 10 ) and also to exhibit more uniform surface coverage throughout the quenching process. When hot metal is immersed into an aqueous solution containing any polymer, a vapor blanket is formed due to the immediate volatilization of water at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Characteristics of various coating processes Coating process Substrate hardening Cooling/quenching method Posttreatment needed Quality issues High-temperature salt bath process During cooling from coating operation Oil, salt, air, or nonoxidizing gas cooling Wash in hot water and/or polish off...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... In CHTs, the heated material is immediately quenched in oil or water and air that initiates the cooling cycle. Depending on the rates of cooling, the heat treated material goes through different phase transformations. When the temperature reaches the Ar 3 (starting temperature of transformation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... rates tied to self-quenching (10 3 to 10 4 K/s −1 ) lie distinctly above the values achievable even by quenching in water. Given optimal irradiation conditions and sufficiently large component volumes, the depth of EBH depends on the energy input, chemical composition, and previous heat treatment of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... produce dust or toxic fumes during cutting, or to those alloys or materials with properties that are sensitive to high temperatures or the work-hardening effects of other cutting methods. There is the added advantage of intricate shape-cutting capabilities for these difficult materials. Nonabrasive water...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with small test specimens under the fastest cooling rates of water quenching are nearly always higher than those developed under production heat treating conditions, because hardenability limitations in quenching larger sizes may result in less than 100% martensite formation. Effects of carbon and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...; corrosion in atmosphere, water, and chemical environments; and the applications of stainless steels in various industries are also discussed. austenitic stainless steel corrosion corrosion protection corrosion testing crevice corrosion erosion-corrosion ferritic stainless steel galvanic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... conditions H -value Quenching condition 0.20 Poor oil quench, no agitation 0.35 Good oil quench, moderate agitation 0.50 Very good oil quench, good agitation 0.70 Strong oil quench, violent agitation 1.00 Poor water quench, no agitation 1.50 Very good water quench, strong...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... coatings: Ensure humidity is sufficiently low (generally less than 85% relative humidity) for water evaporation at the time of application. After the initial set and hardening of the coating, protect it from rainfall and provide sufficient time for curing, in accordance with the manufacturer's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) Solution treating is followed by water quenching. (b) IACS, International Annealed Copper Standard. (c) Alloy C18000 (81540) must be double aged, typically 3 h at 540 °C (1000 °F) followed by 3 h at 425 °C (800 °F) (U.S. Patent 4,191,601), to develop the higher levels of electrical conductivity and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... carbon steel (1045) and alloy steels (6140) in various section sizes with water quench (a, b) and oil quench (c, d). Source: Ref 4 Figure 4 ( Ref 4 ) is a quantitative example of carbon steel (1045) and chromium-vanadium alloy steel (6140) hardened sections after water quenching ( Fig. 4a , 4b...